uïïun  150, 

mrayur 2959

  (Octobre  2009)

Amezwaru

 (Page d'accueil) 

Tamazight

mlmi amutty zi "tsrtit tabarabarit" vur "tsrtit tamazivt"?

Imazighen d ughrbaz n Uzrvu

Asfru amazigh

Umyey n rmendvar n jeddi

Ger qwen allen d terzmed tent

Uffan nm

Imezran

Twareg

Amedyaz

Tammurt n Temsaman

Ar ur tallat...

Français

Approche de l'érotisme à travers la poésie rifaine

Marcus Aurelius Olympius Nemesianus

La culture amazighe

العربية

متى ننتقل من السياسة البربرية إلى السياسة الأمازيغية؟

ترسيخ الهوية العربية للمملكة المغربية

العرب أمازيغ مازغة

الأمازيغية المفترى عليها

اللغة العربية رابعة عالميا؟

أين التلفزة الأمازيغية؟

لسنا عربا

حول الضجيج اليهودي الأمازيغي

الصحافة الأمازيغوفوبية

ممحاة لمحو الجهل بمحو الأمية

وسط  فاس، الحرية

المطربة ديهيا تغرد من جديد

الشاعرة ربيعية دريدي نجمة الشعر الأوراسي

ديوان للشعار محمد أرجدال

كتاب م إيزولا

رسالة هيومن رايتش إلى وزير الداخلية المغربي

صدور قاموس شاوي عربي

ندوة بالمكسيك حول الثقافة الأمازيغية

بلاغ مركز الذاكرة المشتركة

بيان تنسيقية تنزروفت

اليوم العالمي للشعوب الأصلية

بلاغ من تيضاف بتافراوت

بلاغ لمنظمة تاماينوت

بلاغ للجمعيات السياحية بالحسيمة

 

 

 

Imazighen g ugherbaz n Uzrvu: Makkas? Max? I tghuri mad i kra yadv?

Yaru t: Saoid Bajji

Yettussekw aseggâs n 1927, “ugherbaz amazigh n Uzrvu”, i usnam d ulmad n waraw inemghuren, s yewedv kigan dig sen ghur skwila tasedrast n “Dar Bayda” g ameknas, d yits yadv ghurs asnam adeblan amazigh, hma ad gin imasayen i fransa jaj n teqbilin timazighin.

Agherbaz yega yat zeg teowlin, s isakkam urummi tasertit nnes ghurs idurar n imazighen. Taselwayt n tghawsiwin tisertanin, itt igran ddaw as, tega tamessumant nnes ad tessnem araw n inemghuren. initen nnes, ayd tt yudjan ad yetwagg g fazaz. Asnam arummazigh, yega dat as kradv n initen, g tizwiri, ad tsenmala tasertit n fransa, g usays n tghuri, i teqbilin, tiss snat, ad iss tisin timyurin d tsertit n imazighen, tiss kratv, asxiter i tkerza d twuriwin n ayt berra, smi gha yaghul waraw n imazighen d imazan ger ayt ixamen nsen d irummiyen.

Ad nadj g idis, asnay n ulmad amazigh, nssiwel xf initen nnes, iddegh netta agha yegin allen s seksiwen tt tedbula n tughmurt, s tesghima i tsertit tamazight: issemghuran tasertit, tisin tulawin n izerfan d temyurin d tdamsa, d wawal n teqbilin n idurar, ad sen yettadjan i irummiyen ad msawadven d imezdagh.

Ar yettelmad inyer n 230 d 245 n unelmad, g tella 150 ar 170 gher tella tertbirt d 70 ar 75 n unelmad mi zedghen ayt ixamen nsen g temdint n uzrvu, g illa kigan waraw n toutrirt n idurar. Munn d inelmaden ugherbaz amazigh n uzrvu, zeg jaj d berra n uzrvu, zzig sen araw n ayt mgill, izemmuriyen, igerwan, a yt ndvir, izvayan, ayt oyac n melwit d says, ayt Izdeg, ayt wirra, ayt seghruccen, imermucen, ayt sadden, ayt warayen, ayt xebbac...

Smus iseggwasen imezwura, lla yettamezv digs unelmad aselkin n tezrawin timenza timuselmin, tedvfar tt id tghuri tanammast, i yan useggwas,dar as kradv iseggwasen n tmedvfart.

Kra idrusen zeg icirran gher tella tertbirt, ayd itamman g tghuri nsen ar amzven aselkin n tezrawin timenza timuselmin, yegan aselkin aneggaru i tghuri g ugherbaz amazigh n uzrvu. Ur ar itfedda taghuri nsen ad amzven aselkin n tezrawin timenza timuselmin , ghas wiss kkanin zedghen ayt ixamen nsen g uzrvu isinn i taorabt d tmazight.

Agherbaz llan digs kratv n trubba timajjalin, yat n trabbut n tabidagujit, zeg teffghen iselmaden imazighen, tarabbut tiss snat, tega tin n tkerza d trabbut n imzill.

Taghuri g ugherbaz n uzrvu, lla takka i inelmaden nnes ad ddun gher skwila taserdast “Dar Bayda” g ameknas, tighdemt tamazight, taguri tazaguzt. Wid ur djin zgillin kra ar aseggwas n 1930. uma wiyadv, mi tettwakka twuri, gan t willi izrin taghuri, mec ur ghurs ayt ixamen nghed imadviren nsen, mas ten ttawsen, nghed mec meqqur xf tghuri, wid mi tetemmuca kra n tghuri iwpenn... ar ttamzven g teghradv nsen ger 275 d 500 frank i uyur. Uma willi feddanin taghuri nsen, lla ttamzven tawuri, d iselmaden, imzemmen g tenzzurfa, ifermliyen ... ar asen yetemmuca g teghradv nsen, zeg 500 ar 900 n frank, g tizwiri, zdvarr ad awdven ar 1100 frank g teghrvad nsen i uyur. Ar tessnam skwila, g tizwiri,imzemmen ar yettamzven adghr n tvelba ger djmaot, d imessaghul. Ar aseggwas n 1935, ayd temmuety tghuri g ugherbaz, ad asselmed i tussnakerza d izerfan d usnam n lqeyad yimal n teqbilin d iselmaden.

Zeg dat useggwas n 1927, ar yetetter ujiniral Freydenberg, yumzven tasga n ameknas, ad yettwagg ugherbaz a, hma ad yemnu ussnam waraw inemghuren, ugar uyelli yettelmad umata g waraw imazighen g skwilat yadv. Netta ayd yegan agherbaz ussnam i toutrirt tamazight yimal.

Tasebbabt,takerza, tadamsa, tera zeg iorrimen imazighen ad lemden ghifs, hema ad munn d tutrawin n ugdez atrar.G ktuber 1925, ar yetetter Hardy, zg ixatar nnes ad tettussekw skwila taseggwat tamazight, Freydenberg, zeg tesga nnes, yuzen ass n 8 nayer 1926, yat tebrat i tselwayt n tghawsiwin n imezdagh , ad tessekw skwila, g gha lemden waraw inemghuren imazighen, s umata g gha yisinn awd i tefransist, i ten yettadjan ad nmen tazmmamt d inebdaden aoraben g umaris n tghawsiwin n imezdagh.Taselwayt n skwila taseggawt tamazight, t temmuc i Arsène Roux, aselmad n taorabt g ameknas.

G tizwiri, tega skwila uzrvu, talli g ttelmaden icirran(taghuri tamenzut), ammas n temdint n uzrvu, tegg altu, yat skwila taseggawt g tella tertbirt i icirran ioerqen. Tad gher ar teddun icirran zeg idgheren yadv, ur ilin skwila. Ar aseggwas n 1929 ayd taghul, ad tegg agherbaz, ar ttelmaden icirran ad amzven tamnaggayt n tezrawin tinammasin timuselmin, tega dat as almad i yat trabbut n iselmaden imazighen.

Tenca tghuri s iselmaden iqbayliyen. Hma ad tkeccem yat trabbut iselmaden zeg icirran imerrukiyen ifeddan taghuri nsen, fghen d zeg ugherbaz kigan imekrazn d isekkaken g useggwas n 1935. Dinna drusen imazighen, issafadven araw nsen ad lemden g skwilat n irummiyen.G cutambir n 1931 ikeccem d uselmad n tatvant J. Nuss,ar tghallen imazighen, is n iqqan araw nsen, ad ddun ghur skwilat idefrir, ayen as ar ten tffer, maca ar ten id ttawin irummiyen ad lemden bla ulawen nsen.

Ar cutambir 1942, ayd tffegh yat tmazant, isissin s iwtilen ukeccum icirran ghers agherbaz, dinna ayd yettwagg ugherbaz i yirew inemghuren, mzarayen icirran kkanin, dat uyenn, agherbaz, yella dig sen wis yaghul ghers ayt ixamen nsen, wis ddanin gher skwila tasedrast “Dar bayda”, wis yegan imesmujjal g tenzzurfa n teqbilin, nghed wis ganin iselmaden. Hema ad sersin irummiyen idvudvan xf temnadven mi ran ad lemden waraw nsen:ansiwen yettwaorrben jaj uzrvu d sefru, tiqbilin n imazighen yellan g lutva, tiqbilin mi yaghul uzgen dig sen tt lla yessawal s taorabt, am (izemmuriyen, igerwan, ayt oyac n says, ayt sadden), wid akw mi gha gin ayt ixamen nsen zeg wiss iwalan i fransa. Ar yetteg ugherbaz tiwuriwin nnes, bela ma gha yettwag uzemmam. Ur da nettafa, g tesga yad, ghas tirra n Gabriel German, aselway n ugherbaz, ur yessin awd amecta icirran ayd ikkan g ugherbaz, zeg useggâs llig yettussekw. Yeghall is ifedda uzemmam g uttvun 831, ur ghurs illi uzemmam n 1938, ar yettghisa awd netta ghas ayelli as yeqqis Boutet yekkan yega inyer n 1934 d 1936 amadvuf amatu, mi yenna is ur ikki ghurs agherbaz kra yegan arra amemmam, mnid i manig inna is yekka gher kku tinmelt yan aneqqis. Yini is tezzri skwila tanammast uzrvu, yan warra abali yumzven ger ktuber 1923 d mars 1932, imil lla yetfedda g wuttvun 231.Tira n german, ifedda dig sen tt awal, smi yenna: ”yeceqqa ad tafed yat tzemmamt n inelmaden inyer iseggâsen n 1932 d 1938”. Awd g ugherbaz ass a,ur da nettafa awd kra idrusen xf uzmez a, ini ur yelli walu. Is llan kra ineghmisen d warraten ugherbaz g udghar yadv. Ayad awr nessin. Awd g anammas theyyal tadiblumatit n Nantes , ur illi ghas ca idrusen, ayd yenna Muhamed Benplal, yegan adlis nnes xf tghawsa ya, g yega Arsène Roux, aselway ameskwan i ugherbaz, maca ur yettwassen walu xf twuri tadeblant nnes.

G ugherbaz, yaghull ad yeg “Lycée Tariq” dart uzarug, ur nessin walu xf uzemmam ad awssar, xf issiwel Gabiel Germain, ur as nufi annra, awd g anammas theyyal tadiblumatit n Nantes, nghan as warraw ukabar uzarug annra, am uyelli tenghan i tmektit tazaguzt ugherbaz amazigh, mi ttusenfaren tt awd tggurin d igudar allig yettwattu yan ugherbaz amazigh g udghar n “lycée Tariq” g uzrvu.

Ysiwel uzemmam amadvan ugherbaz amazigh uzrvu xf mmencit n tghuri g ugherbaz, zeg 1 cutambir 1929 ar 30 yunyu1958. Yan uzemmam awssar ibirun g tiddi nnes, yetwarin s ufus, wad ayd yegan timektit tawaylalt ugherbaz, tiffar tiss snat d tiss kratv, g uzemmam a, rezvmen tt xf mraw n tsirit. Tifert tiss snat, llan digs sdis n tsira, uttvun ukeccum, azmez ukeccum, isem unelmad, azmez d udghar n tlalit unelmad, adghar g llan ayt ixamen nnes. Tifert tiss kratv, tiwi kkuzv n tsirit, azmez wufugh, taghawsa wufugh, taghuri d tannayin. Ttuzemmen icirran, yan dart wayadv, tarabut tamezwarut ugherbaz(aseggâs n tghuri 1929 1930) digs 105 unelmad, gan akw nsen iwtman(ur dig sen telli awd yat tuwtemt), anazmam amezwaru yusi uttvun 1 d uneggaru uttvun nnes 104.

Ur tuzeggan kigan wakuden d idghar n tlalit, d awd teqbilt zeg yega unelmad. Yits n tikkal, tawru warraw icirran, dg sen lbacat, lqeyad, cyux... ilin awd isebbaben, imekrazen... Imil ur yelli kra yegan timitar xf taywant n ayt ixamen inelmaden n ugherbaz amazigh uzrvu.

Tifert tayffast, lla digs nettafa yits ineghmisen drusnin xf ukeccum amezwaru icirran g ugherbaz, nghed aseggâs llig d mmutin zeg ca n skwila yadv, hma ad fddan iseggâsen nsen ineggura ur yellin g tilli zeg d ddan. G tisirit n tannayin, llan nettafa timitar s mas yumezv ifedda icirri taghuri nnes, d ismawen awd willi yeddan ghur skwila tasedrast “Dar Bayda” g ameknas, d wanaw n tamnaggayt yumezv, d awd wiss yettwazoen, d ma xf mi twazvoen. Mghar drusen ineghmisen llanin g uzemmam ad, maca ghur sen adghan imeqqur g tmektit n “Lycée tariq Ben Ziyad”. Mghar digs ur yelli mayday gh yakkan timitar, s tekka skwila g udghar n ugherbaz dat useggâs n 1927, mad aseggâs nna ayd yegan amezwaru nnes.

Tikardviwin n isedras digs kigan ineghmisen ugar uyelli yettilin g yat tedbelt n tghuri. Zeg tizwiri, nannay taguri n ugherbaz amazigh, ur yegin am wiyadv g igherbazen ula skwilat. Dad ayd yettwaray isem unelmad, azmez n tlalit, asun d teqbilt n tlalit, tanebbatv uhettvay, isem d tawuri n bab as nghed win amadvir, d kigan ineghmisen xf taywant nsen, skwila g ikka unelmad, mectida aya, d manig yiwedv g tghuri, yakkan tisefras xf inelmaden. Ineghmisen a, llanin g tserdast ur llin g tedbelt ugherbaz, t id tteg tselwayt n tghawsiwin tisertanin, ur id tareqqast tazaguzt. Ayad agh yakkan timitar, is d snat n tselwayin ar isnuccugen tawuri ugherbaz, maca ur llin ineghmisen ghas g yat dig sen tt. Agherbaz taselwayt n terqqast tazaguzt, ghas tad ayd yettemsawadven d tghawsiwin tisertanin. Ineghmisen ad, ayd yefkan i imerzan, mas gha smunn kigan xf wuzvu icirran, yekkan agherbaz amazigh uzrvu. S umata xf tzedduyt warraw inelmaden d irummiyen.

Zeg kradv igherbazen irummiyen imezwura, ghas wi uzrvu a gher yella usadvuf a awaylal, yezdin, g tikkelt d terqqast tazaguzt, d akw tizemmar i tselwayt n tghawsiwin tisertanin d awd i tmesghimt tamatut. Ayad mi nettafa afessay, mec nessen taghawsa imazighen, ur tegi am tiyadv.

Skwila urummazigh d ugherbaz amazigh uzrvu,s umata, izdi nnican d imesghimi amatu, yegan anesmigal n uwanak afransawi g tughmurt. Tigemmi n tghuri i tsertit tamazight n fransa, nettat ad xf tessekw tsertit yimal, g uzmez n tughmurt nghed awd g uzarug. Inmuggar irasal, ar dig sen ittusemrara wawal xf iseqsiten n skwilat timazighin, g yettamu uneghlaf amerruki anesmigal n tghuri tamuslemt.Lmexzen d ugellid, ssen xf skwilat ad.

Zegûs da adday d kecmen icirran, ur da uferrun walu xf tghuri, maca xf tertbirt, bdân icirran d iteddun zeg ttisao xf snat n temnadvin, tamezwarut lla s tufrru terqqast tazaguzt utcci d mmensit nnes tamnatv tiss snat, ayt ixamen inelmaden nnes as yufrrun irzvan n tghuri .

Agherbaz amazigh nuzrvu, ur da t iketccem ghas araw imazighen yegan inemghuren nghed wis asen iwalan. Gin irew nsen nghed araw willi asen idfvar.

Iretbiren akw, lla keccmen tasakramt, lla kecmen, xf snat n temnadvin:

Inelmaden iherran g skwila tamezwarut tamazight.

Araw n inemghuren, ikkan nghed ur kkin skwila lli d yiwi umaris n tghawsiwin imezdagh nghed tahettvayt tamadant. Mec n tufa tselwayt is drusen icirran as d yettuzemmamen, am uyelli yekkan aseggwas n 1937, llig ur zrin inezmamen ili wis kradv, zeg umnect i ku aseggwas, lla ttazen tselwayt n tghawsiwin tisertanin i irughiyen n tseggiwin (Fas, Ameknas, Merrakec, Rbadv), mas yetetter ugherbaz amazigh uzrvu, ad as d ttuzemmen icirran zeg waraw n inemghuren, yurzzun ad gin imasayen imezdagh ghers imal.

Tiseggiwin ad, yettazenn ismawen icirran dat n 20 ghuct n ku aseggwas, ismawen xf ttilin ineghmisen i ku yan dig sen. Gher tingiri uyur n ghuct, lla yettmun uselway ugherbaz d uhettvay n tghawsiwin n imezdagh, ad kkin imarisen n tseggiwin asen d izemmen icirran, yiwdven xf tghuri.Hma ad ghif sen tini tselwayt awal nnes aneggaru. “Llan wis mi tekkes ismawen nsen, mec n tufa ur as imunn d tsertit nnes”. Nghed mec ggudin inezmmamen, ugar wuttvun ikecmen ku aseggwas. Ugar uya lla turzzu tselwayt ad tsemzvi zeg irzvan, llig ar ttasi icirran ugar mi gha frun ayt ixamen nsen irzvan n tghuri, s umata araw n lqeyad, cyux, inemghuren imtverrhen, hema ad tenzegh fransa amata g imazighen, ad lemden, tega yasen, g tesgha n uzrvu, yat skwila tamenzut tamuslemt, uma icirran d iteddun zeg skwilat yadv, aselway n ugherbaz ayd yettasin wis mi gha tetmmuc tertbirt nghed ur asen temmuc.

Meskwit n tmesmunt n inelmaden iqburen n ugherbaz amazigh uzrvu. Tawuri d imal nnes

Yuca ujiniral n tesga n ameknas assuref s gha yettwag ugraw ddaw n tselwayt i Bisson, ass n 27 mars 1942(96) , hema ad tettussekw tmesmunt n inelmaden iqburen n ugherbaz amazigh n uzrvu (L’Association des Anciens élèves du Collège Berbère d’Azru(AAECBA)), tettwag tmusmunt ad hema ad zzigs tssilil yat trabbut n tenbatv (le Comité de Patronage), iwrellin i ku agherbaz g llan waraw n inemghuren imazighen, xf teskwa toutrirt imunn g tmallaghin d tilit imehdvaren yekkan agherbaz n Mulay Driss g fas d ugherbaz n Mulay Yusef g rbadv. Smellden willi as iskwin, smi ran ad smunn, inyer imeddukwal, ssider taymat ger asen, maca, lla tega, g tufra, taselwayt n ugherbaz, ayenna tera.Tamesmunt ar yekkaten ad tili tertbirt ghers inelmaden g ugherbaz…

Ass n 27 mars 1942, g tsaragt tis kradv n tazzwit, tmun 45 n uorrim, 25 zzig sen feddan taghuri nsen, ffir i mayd uzenn wiss dvenin tibratin, s ran ad amunn issen tt g ugraw, iddegh ur asen yallfus zeg twuri nsen.

Agraw ad iffegh s ufran i umaris(Bureau provisoire), llig yuli Abd lhamid Ben Mulay Ahmed Azemmuri, aselmad g ugherbaz, d ameqran n tmesmunt, Abd Allah Ben oumar Rahmani, aselmad g Ifran, d amzemmem. Abd rahman n ayt lhu, asebbab g uzrvu, d bu idrimen. Imasayen, yega ten, Loarbi Ben lqayd loeyaci (Propriétaire Foncier dans la région de fes), omer bennasr Benu Zekri (Aselmad g lexmisat), Tbbur (Asebbab g uzrvu)(97).

Hema ad yettwagg ugraw wis sin, ass n 10 yunyu 1943, llig gha ttuzeyyer kigan tmusmunt, umezv ugraw zeg 15 h ar 18h30 g yamu 41 unelmad aqbur, zeg 202 umzemmem g ugherbaz d 15 willi fkanin iqaridven(23000 frank). Dis ayd tettusmuttey tiwent tis 6 zeg usadvuf amatu n tmesmunt, yettugdel ughars ger icirran ranin ad tamman g tghuri nsen gher dat. Ttwaggen iwettan i tmesmunt s tezdar ad teg kigan n tghawsiwin, mghar ssiwel yits imepdvaren g tghawsiwin yegan aottvib ghers irummiyen, am willi ar iseqsan xf max alli ttusseghran g ugherbaz n uzrvu ghas waraw n inemghuren. D max allig ur terzvim tghuri dat waraw imazighen s uyen s llan. Llan wiss ar seqsanin altu, max allig ur da tettusselmad tutlayt taorabt(98). Llan wisss siwllin xf twuriwin umzemmem ifran.

Agraw wiss sin issili, Abd Lhamid Azemmuri d ameqran, Mulay Ahmed ben lhusayn aceqqir (Aselmad g leqsiba) d amedfvur nnes. Abd llap Ben oumar azemmuri (aselmad g ifran) d amzemmem, omer Ben bennasr azemmuri (Aselmad g lexmisat) amzemmem wiss sin. Abd Rahman Belhaj lahsen umgil n ayt lhu (Asebbab g uzrvu) bu idrimen. Imasayen, gan ten, ossu umuha u yidzr, memmis n lexlift n lqayd Muha uzayd n Gerrama, Ben Yusef Umuha umgil, amehday g ifran, lghazi ben oumar Usadden, Aselmad g lhajeb, Hammi U Muhand uyusi, aselmad g Idzer, Muhamed Ben Lqayd ameqqur n oin luh.

Amaris digs 10 d imeltaghen ( 3 n izemmuriyen, 5 n ayt mgil, yan usadden, d yan uceqqir). Dig sen 6 d iselmaden, g skwilat irummiyen. Dad ayd yettusghim i istayen imunn d temyurin yetwassen gher Djmaot(99), yegan tadimuqratvit tarasghant. Allig gan icirran n teqbilt tamnatv nsen, s zdvarr izemmiriyen ad amzven ixf i tmesmunt, mghar digs ggudin icirran n ayt mgil.

Urin irummiyen xf icirran ad, d mayd ar tgannayen, s umata ayelli yettawrin ghif sen g ishayell imesdurruyen, is ar ttelmaden yat tdelsa irummiyen, ighiyen ad ten tssikem g tgherma tamattuyt, s umata g ar ttelmaden amezruy n fransa, xf gha teskwu tghelnawt ghur sen, ar asen ttinin is d tad ayd yegan yat tgherma issegman iwdan, d ubghur nsen g usays n tdelsa d izerktiyen, gha yawin tamazirt gher dat, iss as ar seksiwen icirran gher tdelsa d tgherma imazighen, is ur da ten ttawi ghas gher dart. Imil, yela xf fransa ad asen d tssufegh zeg jaj nsen willi ur yegin ghas imazzal n fransa. Dart uyenna gan iselmaden (mani zeg yeggudi dig sen). Yela g tizwiri ad nesrar, is d, zeg 23 nayr 1940, ayd yettwari usenfar n usadvuf n tmesmunt n inelmaden iqburen n ugherbaz amazigh n uzrvu, yazen tt uselway n ugherbaz n uzrvu gher rbadv, taselwayt tasedragt tazaguzt d tselwayt tadeblant tazaguzt , tid d yetter zeg tselwayt ad toemmer yits n tiffar. Tiwent tamezwarut g usadvuf amatu, yiwi d xf meskwit n tmesmunt (AAECBA), mi tella tzeddught g uzrvu, agens n ugherbaz, yezdvar ad yemmutey gher tnilawin yadv g temdint n uzrvu, gha tkkes, mec tera tselwayt n tghawsiwin tiseranin.

Annazen n tmesmunt n tiddukla (tiwent2) n inelmaden iqburen n ugherbaz amazigh d «Amyag n tzedduyin n tiddukla inyer imeltaghen nnes, s ghiyen ad myawasen ger asen, s gha ssilin zeg iwtilen n tudert nsen, d ussiws i icirran imezvladv, mghar nnuzen ad t tamman g tghuri nsen».

Llan g tmesmunt n imeltaghen iherran, imeltaghen imeskwan, imeltaghen imebghuren, imeltaghen imghar imburzen. Smi imeltaghen iherran, niteni , yela zzig sen ad gin inelmaden iqburen, wid aymi tettwamazv tmeltaght zeg twila tadeblant (Consil d’Administration) lli yakkan ku aseggwas 30 frank.

«Ur yetteg ameltagh imherri ghas wen gher llan izerfan imadan, d mec yiwedv isuyas imattuyen g tghuri tamenzut». Lla yettenbadv g tmesmunt (Coseil d’administration), g llan 6 n umeltagh.

«Aselway n ugherbaz nghed anesmajjal nnes, ayd ttini tiwent tis 6, yettamun g ugraw nnes, s yism umasay». Imeltaghen n tawila, lla ttustayen, g ugraw amatu, g wakud n yan useggwas (azgen wiss sin g uyur n nayer), astay izri s wazan.

Agraw amezwaru izri ar ass n 31 nayer 1943, g uzmez llig tezdar ad tamezv tmesmunt abrid anaruz».

Tiwent 15, ur tezzri assiwel g tsertit d usghan, s umata tasertit lli yezdin tin fransa, ayen as tettwag tzeddught n tmesmunt jaj ugherbaz, hma ad ihedu imeltaghen nnes, s mayda tegan. S ur tggin tasertit d tguriwin kra ur tri fransa.

«Le service de l’enseignement Musulman», ayd isghimen i usenfar a, netta d tselwayt n tghawsiwin tisertanin, ar yurzzun ad yettusmuttey kra zeg usadvuf.

Prosper Richard, axatar usekkir n tghuri tamuslemt, ar yettini is d yettusghim i yat toutrirt islillun xf ugherbaz uzrvu, g llan icirran yettusgmin xf ifassen n irummiyen, sslemden ten, am uyelli asen yetwaggen i yits yadv g ugherbaz Mulay driss g fas d Mulay yusef g rbadv.» tamesmunt ad, s imi n Ricard, tega dat as assegmi d usnam icirran yelan addur». Imil, mec nannay asadvuf, lla tin nettafa, is tra tenbatv, ad tesmuttey tiwan 2,3,4,7,11,13, maci am uyelli yellan g tmesmunin yadv, yegan am nettat.

Ar turzzun ad tesmuttey isem i tmesmunt gher win «Tamesmunt taduklant n inelmaden iqburen g ugherbaz amazigh». Hma ad zzrin, s tufurin, tasertit n fransa ddaw n tiddukla.

Lla turzzu fransa ad twakkes tegnawalt  «Tezdar ad t ttusmuttey tzeddaght, ghers idghar yadv g temdint uzrvu, s wawal ugraw adeblan».

Lla turezzu ad telqqem tiwent a , s tegrawalt «Imeltaghen ugraw adeblan, lla ttustayen zeg uzgen amezwaru uyur n nayer, ur id azgen wis sin g uyur n nayer».

Am uyelli d tiwi tselwayt n tghawsiwin tisertanin, is ur yeghiy ummegraw n ku ayur, ad digs d ttamun imeltaghen n tmesmunt, dad ayd yetemmuc uzerf i uselway n ugherbaz, ad yeqqar ghurs agraw, g uzmez d yusan, ar yesmuqqul is yela ad digs yettwag ugraw.

Lla ttannay is yela ad twazanan tt tghuriwin g ughmis amerruki ur id ghas awalli n tesga uzrvu.

Dis ayd tzemmem tselwayt n tghawsiwin tisertanin d temzemmemt tamatut n tughmurt ass n 20 avril 1942, mas tega  «Tmesmunt taduklant n inelmaden iqburen n ugherbaz amazigh igman g uzrvu», talli izdin d wanadv n 24 mayu 1914, yettusenfel s wanadv n 5 yunyu 1933, yettinin is ur tezdar tsenbatv ad tini kra berra wanadven zrinin. G yan usays asertan, s yetteg amasay, yettaderr, s tufra, g uselway Abd lhamid azemmuri, s uyelli yettmunn d tsertit n fransa. S umata g usays n tghuri. Imil ku zerrin iseggwasen, ttafa fransa ixf nnes, lla tssegma willi, itt izrin g tsertit, willi d inezghen izerfan imadan, d tsertanin n berra, yakkan azerf i waraw n tmazirt ad snuccgen, s ixfawen nsen tamazirt nsen.Yekka uyen g uzmez, g tssen fransa, is ur as yeqqim kigan ad teffegh Merruk. Tssufegh d zzig sen fransa, ayelli tera. Mghar tennaqan yits dig sen, ssufghen d axbacen ghurs arummi. «Niteni d ifrax ranin ad nghin id baba tsen»? hma ad ddun qeddi gher tenbatv n merruk yimal. Zeg icirran d iffegh n idis i irummiyen, ameqran n tmesmunt inelmaden iqburen n ughernaz amazigh g uzrvu, Abd lhamid Azemmuri, ar yettarin i marical Pétain, ar yettari i imezvyan g inelmaden tibratin, lli ar yettwazan i irummiyen xf tghawsa n uzarug, netta d anesmajjal nnes Rahmani Abd llap ben oumar, d Ben zekri olla azemmuri, Mulay Ahmed ben lhusayn, Oli uyusi, yekkan yega, g yan uzmez, aselway n tmesmunt n inelmaden iqburen n ugherbaz amazigh n uzrvu (AAECBA), Abd Rahman n ayt lhu, yesmuttin isem nnes, ad yeg Abd Rahman Belhusayn, llig ar yettmatva ghurs ifasiyen, wad ayd izelloen arra n tutra uzarug g fazaz, yamu g ukabar uzarug. Abu Tajddin Mulay Tpami,netta d Hasan azemmuri, yegan amezvyan g inekraf (13 ar 14 useggâs), yettugrin g yat n tebniqt taneqmurt g lhemmam (M’rirt), g yella lghazi usadden «Aselmad imecwi», netta d Hmmi, awaglal n umaris n tmesmunt inelmaden iqburen ugherbaz amazigh g uzrvu, yamun g ukabar umtawa d uzarug(PDI) , iddegh yekka ar yesselmad g Idzer, llig yettwamezv Muhamed Belhasan Al Wazzani (axatar n ukabar), ddaw uhetvu irummiyen g Idzer.Uma wiyadv, llan dig sen wiss amunin g ukabar uzarug, am Malik Hmidu, Abd rahman n ayt Lhu, mghar ur ihemil kigan dig sen ad amun g ukabar a, am Abu Naydal d Belosekri, ilin altu, iselmaden, lli ar yesseqran kigan n tsuta, am Ramani Abd llap, amzemmem n tmesmunt, nghed Muhamed Belhusayn, isslemden kigan n tsuta waraw irummiyen.Ad ur ntettu altu, Bisbis loarbi, Husayn n hadj hammu, d gma s hbibit, Mekki Zeggâgh  «Wid Akw gan zeg tsuta tamezwarut, zdaren ad raren afus i irummiyen». Ayd yiwi Muhamed Benplal. Uma win tsuta tiss snat, ur ghur sen mami zdarr ad t gin, dat n tsuta tamezwarut. G yella hasan Alawi, yumzven aselkin n tghuri tamenzut g ugherbaz uzrvu, yemmutey dart uyen ghirs agherbaz n Oymiran g ameknas, llig izzri taghuri nnes tanammast, hma ad izzri yan useggâs g ugherbaz Gaurant g Rbadv aseggâs n 1948, yaghul d dart uyen gher ameknas, llig ghad yaf imeddukwal nnes, am Abd llap bamorufi, Yahya Iben Tumert, oli uyusi, ben dawd d wiyadv. Hasan Alawi yedda dart uyen ad ifedda taghuri nnes g Toulouse (Fransa), ffir i manig yumezv bakalurya, hma ad yemmutey gher tesdawit n La Sorbonne. Yekka hasan oalawi, yegan aorab (memmis n crif n ben Smim), g yan uzmez, yega amghar n tmesmunt n inelmaden iqburen n ugherbaz amazigh g uzrvu, llig ur iri Muhamed Ufqir, ad kecmen waoraben tamesmunt ad. «Ar yurzzu Muhamed Ufqir ad teg tmesmunt tamazight 100%, imil yuli hasan oalawi, ur ihmil, iddegh yega memmis n crif, d amghar n tmesmunt». Hasan, yegan ffir uyen bugadvu g ameknas, yekk d aselway ugraw aghiwan d uneflus n ameknas g yan uzmez.

Zeg imezvyann inelmaden n ugherbaz amazigh uzrvu, ad nekti, iselmaden n tujjegt Maoni d Bertval, amsekraz Hajbi, lajeryun n issegmi d uzemmem amatu anmazul g wamun amerruki n twuri, Agejdad Dawd, lajenyur d umghar aqbur n tmesmunt n ugherbaz amazigh g uzrvu d uselway aqbur i waman d leowri. Altu lajenyur, Racid Idrisi, asselmad g skwila Muhamadya n lajenyurat, lli yufan kigan uranyum g fusfatv n merruk, imil yettunegh g yat temnaqqart.

Willi yegan isedras, gan awd niteni amur nsen, mghar llan g ifassen i tdefrirt n fransa, ad nekti kabitvan Buozza iffghen zeg uderfrir irummiyen, yeddu ad yesselmed g skwilat tusligin, s umata skwila n Muhamed Gessus g rbadv. Mekki uoli Azeggâgh, yutvnu kulunil imxezniyen, ar yekkaten ad yar ugherbaz uzrvu. Gan akw wid tirbbao, ar tmmegrawen xf tghawsa uzarug, ar smuttuyen imazighen araw nsen gher skwilat tuzlagin. Zeg wiss iwten xf uzarug n merruk, g inelmaden iqburen ugherbaz amazigh uzrvu, Baqayd ommi Dris, Gherbawi ben smail n ayt mulli, arba yulin g useggâs wis kradv g tghuri tamenzut, yamu g ugraw idefrir n dar Bayda, llig yella kulunil d uneccad, Murad ossu, memmis n lexlifa Muha Urehu, kulunil Mulud Noimi n tedders, Muhamed Demnati, lekmandar Ben heddu Usadden, kulunil hda Muhamed uyusef, Loarbi Bucta usadden, d akw idefrir upremmemu d tapla, d ihidan uzrvu d oin luh.

Am uyelli asen yega, s tufra, hammu Umuhand, aselmad g ugherbaz uzrvu, gan icirran aqeyyel s ttebdaden tama n imeddukwal nsen, beddin xf mas yela ad tamezv tmazirt tilelli nnes, inin is dad ddun g ugharas ixataren nsen yemmuten xf tmazirt, nezghen d idefrir lli tengha fransa g tabadult, g ubrid n ameknas, llig kkan irummiyen ar ttawin icirran ad mezvin ad amun ku aseggâs (11 nwanbir) i tmektit tarasalt mi tesghima fransa g tbadult. Tamezv asen tawengimt tiwlafin, llig sull mezvin, n tmeghriwin ar yettwaggan xf isemdval willi ttunghinin aseggâs n 1935 .

«Irummiyen d iddan s akal ad , isin at, ku tiydert tmedjrem, tetccur s idammen n ayt mat negh». G udghar nsen, asun asafu, d nitni araw imsuberr ad inin: «Upu i usdurrey asedras, upu i tmallaght, upu i tatvut». Ar ttarin xf igudar, skker advida, tfafa twengimt ghurs ifrax ad, mezvin. Hma ad mmegrawen, g oari ad arin yat tebrat i Gabriel Germain, aselway ugherbaz amazigh g uzrvu, g tufught nsen uhettvun irummiyen, mtawan ad amun g tghensa ugdud (La Lutte du Peuple).

Ad nefser tabra ad, mghar telggwagh g uglim d ugens nnes .

«Inelmaden n ugherbaz uzrvu »

I mass aselway n ugherbaz uzrvu

Mass aselway

Am imedduroa imeddukwal nsen g timeskiwin dvenin n tghuri jaj n temdinin, inelmaden ugherbaz uzrvu, immegrawen, ssemdun i tefganit , ad qeyyel, s gha amun g tghensa yetteg ugdud amerruki, hma ad yawedv ghers izerfan isertan, idamsann d inamunn.

Nera fransa, iddegh nettat d tmurt agh yesslemden ad nisin timyurin n 1789, yegan ti nnes, imil nera altu, merruk, iddegh netta ayd yegan tamurt agh d yurun, d yela ghif negh ad naff, llig gha namu g temndvt n tezmar tiderfanin, gha yegin yan n umur g tlilli.

Tudert i fransa taderfant, tudert i merruk aderfan

Tudert i umeqran sultvan, ad yehbubved yessemghur Rebbi addur nnes»

Tabrat ad, tela ghif negh ad nsers ghifs yits n tannayin:

G yat tesga, adday nesnucceg amezruy anamun n tmizar imesdurruyen, nghed talli n umlan izugaz, d tin tghuri yesmuttuyen tanamunt. Aoutrir d wen issen ad ismuddu tudert tanamunt, ilin tt ghurs tsura n tussna, s yezdar ad yisin amadval d tmukrisin nnes.

Zeg tesga yadv, snat n tnegma tirasalin, tamezwarut, tega tin talli g tettwagg tebrat a, lla digs ttinin imqeyyel, is ad amun g usselmed d issegmi g ilemsiden d skwilat tuslagin, hma ad ssemghur amussu agdudan g inighi nnes xf izerfan isertann.

Tiss snat, tega tin talttaght g watigen imedvlan g skwilat irummiyen, yegan tayri n tmurt d tin umtawa d taymat, tsseghra tghewwaght n 1789. S yisem n atigen ad yettuzemmen g ubrihen imedvlan, izerfan umadan d win tmadanit, yeteggin timesbuna, maci ghas xf uzedduy d tmazirt nsen, maca awd uzedduy d fransa.

A neddu ghur dat, mec nesmuqqel g tebrat, is zzigs tettusfdv tmawalt «Amazigh/Berbère», s umata zeg yisem ugherbaz d win uselway nnes, ur gin «Agherbaz amazigh uzrvu». Is d stit, is ur rin ad gin isem a, iddegh ur rin ad gin azilal ger skwilat timuselmin d tilli imazighen?. Am uyelli d yiwi Muhamed benplal. Dad ayd tkeccem tadyulujit amawal yetwaggen, yudja yits ad ddun, ar ghallen, is ur rin imazighen ad gin idefrir n gum, imil, iwin d zeg uyelli lemden g ugherbaz, ad iss wten irummiyen, zerktin fransa asen yesslemden ayenna xf skwin taghensa nsen, irin iss tilelli i tmazirt nsen merruk.Tamesbani ya, tuca timitar i irummiyen, i uyelli asen tggin iqbayliyen.

Dart i tebrat lli uzenn icirran i Gabriel Germain, twaggen icirran lourenn, ikeccem udefrir ghurs agherbaz, hema ad yetturgel aseggwas mag la, ttugrin icirran n 14 ar 16 useggwas g tebniqin tipebcanin, iblubell s waman. Ar ten nezzghen zeg tebniqin gher tiyadv xf idvarr. Llan dig sen wiss yeddan ugar n 80 ukilumiter ghas xf udvr, odun ten imnayen. Zeg icirran yettunzghen xf ioddisen, ad kkin dat unezzarfu, ttuxebdven s kigan iyuren ukraf (Inyer 8 d 12 uyur), Tali Muhamed Uheddu, yega dart uyen aneflus g ughalif ugens g uzmez n tenbdvt n Hasan wiss sin, Loeyaci Mulud Ulehsen, gha yegin anezzarfu dart uyen g tapla, Bertvali Benheddu Ulehsen, lqayd n xnifra dart uyen, Dwiri Lehbib Benhemmu U Yidzer, anezzarfu n Benhemed dart uyen.Ucya olla Umbarc, anezzarfu dart uyen g Beni lent, hasan ben Muhamed Azemmuri, amzemmem aqbur n uwanak ugens, d uneghlaf aqbur n tkerza, d husayn hadj hemmu.

Yits dvenin g inelmaden iqburr uzrvu, kkan g uzmez lli, gan ixeddamen g tedbula n fransa, twamzvenn awd nitni, iddegh amun g igrawen ar yettwaggan xf uzarug n tmazirt, zzig sen hemmu Benmuhamed U Tifelt, aselmad aqbur g anfa, Abd Lhamid Azemmuri, aneflus aqbur n anfa d rbadv d uneghlaf aqbur n tsebbabt d ummuken, netta d Rahmani Abd llap Benoumar, d Bnuzekri bennasr, kradv ad sersin ikmez xf warra n 11 nayer 1944.

Ad nsedfu i telggant a inekraf, ur ntettu sin iqburen ugherbaz, ur tamman g tghuri nsen, g ugherbaz n Mulay Yusef g rbadv, ghas s mxencu, zzig sen Muhamed cafiq Ubenoli Usadden, amggaws aqbur n tghuri tamattuyt g anfa, d uselway aqbur ugherbaz ageldan, yenna is yetturar g idis, zeg mectida aya, zeg aqeyyel n 29 nayer 1944, netta d zeggwagh mekki Ubenoli, lyutnu kulunil aqbur imexzniyen, yetturaren awd netta g idis, zegûs ar yesselmad g skwilat tuslagin, tettwagg ghifs titv, zeg uzrvu ar ameknas. Nitni d Lhusayn Abd Lmalk Usadden, yettwazoen zeg tghuri g ugherbaz amazigh uzrvu, yemmutey ad ifedda taghuri nnes g ugherbaz n Mulay Dris g fas, hema ad yegg icirri amezwaru yumzven bakalurya aseggâs n 1949.

Mghar rezvmen irummiyen agherbaz g ktuber 1944, tettusefer tselwayt tadeblant, ikeccem t id udefrir. Ar tezoen inelmaden ranin ad feddan taghuri nsen, yits mmutin ghurs igherbazen yadv. Ad is terzva tsertit n fransa mgal Imazighen?

Gabriel Germain, aselway ugherbaz, s ixf nnes, tkkas advar, tega s tmesghimt tamatut bumci, theredv iss, tawi d g udghar nnes yan usedras, ad isbedd icirran yesekker adîda, izveyyer wiyadv ad kkin idis i tsertit, nghed ad twazoen awd nitni zeg tghuri. Kigan zeg icirran lli mi tenna fransa, is as skker adîda, tumezv ten, nghed tuder dig sen, ad aderr zeg tesga nsen, xf waraw nsen. Ar turzzu tmesghimt ad tssilil timukrisin ger icirran n ayt mgil d win ayt izemmuriyen, d wiyadv d iteddun zeg tesggiwin ioerqen. Llan icirran, mi yettwader xf warraw nsen, allig urin tibratin yadv lla tetter dig sen tt ad asen tssuref tselwayt ugherbaz, ar ggar imuttil xf icirran iqburen i ten yugerr. Ass n 13 mars 1944, iwdven d 4 n tebratin ghurs aselway ugherbaz, zeg icirran yetwazvan, zeg tghuri, sin zeg ayt sadden, yan zeg Berkan, tnnedvnin zeg Figig.

Gannin tt tebratin nna ar 19 yunyu1945, llig tessmudu DAP, ad teg taghawsa ugherbaz ger ifassen n kmandar Coudino ameddvaf aseggaw izerfan ugafi g ameknas. Yegan tasestant nnes g idgharr llig zedghen warraw icirran yekkan tibniqin xf tghawsa n aqeyyel uzrvu. Yela ad nekti is ar d tddun icirran ad lemden, zeg Berkan, Taws, Demnat, Tedders, Aknul, Imtghern, Budnib. Yits n tseggiwin g lhusima, nadvur d Titvwan, yellan ddaw i tenbatv n sbanya, ur ikeccimen ddaw n tenbatv n fransa

(Tasestant: Saoid Bajji)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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