uïïun  173, 

tzayur 2961

  (Septembre  2011)

Amezwaru

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Tamazight

is d talmmiççt i wanay vur zzat niv d asulf i wavul dffir?

Arrif di 122 n iseggusa

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Arrif di 122 issgusa : Jar tirelli d uhwes (tafult tis kradv)

Yura t: Andich idir

Irifien jar bu teghyuct d umezvyan

Mraw n issgusa imezwura zeg umezruy n Arrif d Marrakec zi rqan wis 20, iraren ict temlilt (role) d axatart deg imar nsen i d ghad yassen, ujar umi tanbadvt tanammast (le Gouvernement central) n rmexzen, tedwer tenumam u tedvoec s wattvasv s wadaf n ifransisen d tidwas (les forces) n imbiryalien nneghni am uliman d britvanya d ssbanya s wattar nsen i rmexzen, ar ami yuffa ameggaru ya ixf nnes innugh deg umarwas ar tmezzughin, oawed tasertit i yedvfar Oabdel oziz deg uzedjeo n wagra xf tiknulujya tamaynut itejja tagrawla tamgurant (revolution industrial) n tagherma tawrubbect, tkemmer xf min iqqimen.

Maca ak ughezdis nneghni min idja yeqqimen deg ufus n rmexzen tugha iseggur it amawas amezwaru Bba-hmad, mamec deg wakud ni idja igherfan (les peoples) n tmura n Tamezgha adu uhwes n Fransa (Dzayar d tunes ...), rmexzen xenni tugha t inumam s wattas, maca ntaff imbiryalien oad war zoimen ad adfen xelli addad (situation) i xf arezzun ira aqet di Marakkac, maca di tidet imenghan ni dja din jar asen s ungmedv Fransa d Uliman d Britvanya ak Sbanya, tejja tamsract tamarrakect ad tmxumber ujar u ad tayer ar imar.

Di lltva ni Arrif yeffegh d zeg wattvas n imenghan ra ak rmexzen ura ak Sbanya ca n twaratin swizan marra ayd sen mgal i yighref n Arrif, s uya yeqqim imar n irifien issudjes, deg waddad a ad tnqar tfuct n ijjen umghwwegh yijjin rimart nes deg umezruy n Marrakec, da nessawar xf jjilali ben obdslam lyussfi zerpuni nigh mamec itwassen ghar waydud s buteghyuct (ttvfen as isem a mayenzi di beddu n umussu nes idja itmuttuy jar tqebbar xf teghyuct nes) nigh amec id as traghan yenneghni s “rrugi”, isem Tanya itwammksid zi marra inni ittfghen nigh arezzun ad qerben ajartir xf tanbadvt n rmexzen, mayenzi bu teghuyct maci d amezwar u war itiri ca d ameggar, atarras a irur di dcar ulad yussed ttaf i wedrar n zerpun xf ighezdvisa n tighremt n Fas assegwass n 1968 (1)

Buteghyuct idja d axeddam deg igherm ageldan (palace royal) di tighremt n Marrakec, d Amaru i Mly Oumar umas n Oabdel Oaziz, ghar umeggar umi xafs ttfen ca n tmsrayin ghar barra i wsadvuf, ssidfen tt ghar tkurmut, awarni sin issgusa a zzay s d yeffegh mahned ad irah ghar dzayar, ak tadura nes akids yedwer usenfar ughwegh xf rmexzen n oabdel oaziz, u bac ad yawi imsdfaren tugha yefssar xf ixf nes belli netta i yedjan d ajedjid n tidet “a’mhmed ben Lhassan” maynzi tugha issen belli a’mhmed aqet di tkurmut ghar Oabdel oaziz u ameggaru ya innugh di zzepu, awarni ijjen ussgwas xf usenti n tagrawla n buteghyuct ad yawed ad yegg ict trenawt xf userdas n rmexzen, maynzi ahengar n rmexzen war ghar s bu tughi ca n tamert (experience) deg userdas d imenghan, xenni ad yedwer bu teghyuct itwassen, u oawed tugha iqqar belli Oabdel oziz ixess ad issdef irumien ghar tmurt imsrmen(2)

Maca zeg isqsan yedjan, man tt tameqqant umussu n bu teghyuct ghar Arrif ? tidet, rrugi ifaan Arrif mahned ad day s issars ddsas nnes i wbarru n imentilen zzay sen :

1/ mayenzi itwassen xf irifien akasan (Haines) nsen i rmexzen, ujar mara neoqbed ghar ukrunulujya n imenghan i tugha yedjan zi rebda jar irifien d rmexzen d lhemlatt i yegga umeggaru ya xf tqebbar tireffyin, u itxiss anegh ad nessen belli tawala ni tugha anbadv n rmexzen war it ikkiwid ca Ar arrif, wa nita d ijjen umentil nneghni oawed

2/ yuss d huma ad yaff ibridven umsawad ak zzawect taderqqawect di dzayar, u nssen belli zzwect a tirar ict temlilt d taxatart di wettvu n tayduda tarifect amec yenna Mulay muhned s ires ines, Iderqawien tugha ten d ixwanen ghar Fransa, u ccix Oabdel qader ben Oedda d ccix lbuobdli uccin awar i jjilali zerpuni huma ad kids swizan s tenoacin d tmsrayin iqqnen ghar userdas(3)

U mahned ad yaff ibridven usetteg (negotiation) ak Fransa, manaya itwaydvar di tebrat issek Oabdel oziz di ghar ttvuris (4)

Ra Ak sbanya umi ghad yegg iguta (contract) ak timettiwin (les societies) n Frnsa d sbanya

Xelli ticcemt (majorité) n tqebbar tireffyin idja djan tt ak umussu n bu teghyuct deg umezwaru, zi tqebbar war xsen tt bu ad irin tt ak rrugi tugha dinni ayt warigher rebda teqqim mgal i wsnfar asenrtan n rrugi, ur txis bu ad kids tbedd.

Msmracen attas imentilen ijjin irifien ad nserten ghef umussu n imghwwegh a zzay s iguta nnes ak timettiwin itwaggen tt mahned ad jbden uzzar zeg ikariaren n wedrar n yeksan d ihercawen, di 99 issgusa it id asen s smus imelyunen n bsita assgwass n 1907 (5)

U dvanita twannan attas n izran xf temsract a ad nidar sin zzay sen:

Ay adrar n yeksan, ay ssus n yexsan

Yewc icek urumi, ibna day k snayen

U wanita ijjen yezri nniden itoawad mammec tidwas timbryalyin tugha tmoujjudventt xf rmeodven n arrif :

Ay adrar n yeksan, yeffegh d zzay s rmodven

Teffegh d zzay s nnuqart, regnus ad mmenghen (6)

U neccin nessen belli Takunfidiralect iqeroien zi tqebbar ibedden zeg umezwar ak umussu n bu teghyuct, u tugha di serwan din i ghars taqsbet nes, maca awarni i iguta ya, ad tbedder tikti nsen day s, u ad ssentan iwdvan am muhmed amezyan ad itragha mahend ad wsqen bu teghyuct zi Arrif, maca amezyan war iwid ca ghar umezwar ghar min ixes, rrugi zi rebda tugha idemmeo hima ad issars ayt waryigher adu tiri n unbadv d wayyay nnes, maca amenghi n Buslama (7)

Di wdven ad arzn rrugi, ad tedfaren tt tiqebbar nneghni am Ayt tuzin d temsaman ad xafs wsqen, u ad iffegh zi Arrif di disamber 1908 adu i tadvagut n teqbict n ibdvarsen.

Taggara n bu teghyuct idja tedja d ta3effantt s wattas, uzan irem nes uccin arrimett nes i yizmawen, ar dvanita ad tsala tanfust n buteghyuct ak Arrif.*

Amezvyan … anzbay ar umettin

Awrud ma ad nessiwel xf tnzbayt n umezvyan, ad nssars ijjen useqsi min iona amezvyan atarras ?

Ntta irur deg ussgwass n 1859, tegga tawcunt nnes ijjen zzact deg uzeghnghan, tettwasen s zzawct n tarwa n hmed obsram aqeroi, isseodva temzi ines di tmzidva d tsebbabt ak umi yedwer d ahudri, jar Arrif d Ddzayar, u sminzi abrid nnes idja isgged, s uya idja tweqqaren tt marra irifien, u Danita xmi tugha tragwhen irifien zi Dzayar tugha tmunen d ak Muhmed Amezyan hima ad teggen x uzedjif nsen, xelli wat yudif yeyyar asertan ar umi yeoda 50 issgusa di buhber ines, maca min tugha iteddar Arrif yejj it ughir ad ssidef azedjif nes deg yeyyar ni huma ad yexzar ad isbedd adaf aserdas n buteghyuct nigh n ra n Sbanya di Arrif, u mamec xafs yeqqar Jerman Oeyyac « aqqa ccrif muhmed amzyan zeg imezwura ifaqqen ak buteghyuct» s unegmed awarni umi

yezzenz jjilali zerpuni adrar n yesan d ihercawen i timetti tasbaniut n ikariaren n Arrif d ict tmetti nniden isem nes timetti n yezlmed n tafrqit (societé du nord afrique), jjilali war ibedd ca ghar manaya waha maca yareni iwca urag (autorisation) hima ad ggen tt abrid n macina zi rmas n Mritc ghar idurar n uzzar, manaya uffin tt imgharen n tqebbar iqeroien d ijjen usurif d ameqran ghar usidef irrumien ghar tmurt imsrmen, min ijjin ad arnin irifien ni tugha ak buteghyuct ad zzay s fghen, s uya itwagg ijen wagraw d axatar ismun imgharen n tqebbar iqeroien akk muhmed amezyan u yeffegh wegraw hima ad sbedden abrid ni macina u ad wesqen amussu n buteghyuct

Tiqebbar n Arrif anammas d Arrif asammar jjin jilali zerpuni ad yaggwej xf arrif, manaya ig ioanen ajiniral Marina ad yessek ghar imeqranen n tqebbar iqeroien d muhmed amezyan hima ad tejjen ad ikemmer abrid n macina u ad jjen ixeddamen ad rehgen ghar ikariaren maca nitni ugin (8) xelli amenni ajiniral n Mritc ighettes mahned ad ikemmer abrid n macina ughir xf tqebbar, awarni surif a iyega Marina nneyrun imgharen n tqebbar di sdisyur 1909, u fghen huma ad bedden deg wudem uhwes usbaniu, u di 09 zi sayur ad advgen imerdas irifien ghef isbuniya u arrin ten ghar mritc (9)tadvagut a tegg it sbanya d amentil i wadaf nes aserdas d usenti nes deg uhwes n tqebbar tirefyyin

Ra d muhmed amezyan issenta isqada ghar tqebbar hima ad kids swizant deg umenghi nnes ak uhwes asbaniu, war yeodi ca attas xf ubarreh nes ar ami ssentant id tiqebbar rhgentt id s imerdas nsen tt ghar aytmat sen yedjan deg iqeroien mamec id ussin tt tiqbebbar ra zi radas ra zi ragwaj am ayt warighier, ayt bufrah, ayt yetteft, ayt omaret (10)

Umi irifien sqasen isbunia tixessura di marra iraqqen ittxsen a dinni irin, awarni i waddad a tfren sbanya mahned ad tegg ijjen ujiniral nneghni deg wansa n Marina qqaren as PINTOS, umi ghad sren irifien s ujinral amaynu itegga sbanya swjden as mlih i imenghas i kides ghad yirin deg imar yudsen uca ad yekkar ijjen umenghni yeysi isem mani itwagg “yeghzar n wuccen” id yussin did car n ayt oisa di ayt nsar taqbict n imzzujen, mamec itwassen ghar isbunya s “El barranco del lobo”.(11)

Amenghi ya zeg imenghan ixataren iggin irifien mgal i taymbiryalit tamedlant, ameggaru ya yejja rimart nes deg wazzay asertan asbaniu, s uya sbanya idja txes ad tarr i yixef nnes cenoett s ca umenghi nniden am wenni itwaggen Tanya xf uftas n yill di tqbict n ayt cicar idjan isem nes “ijedyawen”, xelli amenni irifien oawed ad sqasen isbunya s ijjen txessart nneghni.

Tirennawin a i ghar iwed aydud arifi oanen isbunya huma ad xarrsen di ca n tasetrajit nneghni u zzay s ad ucen tmnyat i tqbict iqeroien d ayt cicar d imezzujen mamec yeqqar muhemed hassan lwezzani deg udlis nes “iktayen n tudart d ljipad” maca di tidet nethada day s cwayt n TANAQUD mayenzi iqeroien di tidet nitni d ict tkunfidiralect munen day s smus n tqebbar (ayt cicar, imezzujen, ayt sidar, ayt buyafar, ayt buyfrur) maca min idjan d axatar deg ukud ni ntaff attas n tqebbar fghen tt zeg udvir n muhmed amezyan s unegmed tabict n ayt warigher(12), u itoaqqab manayenni ghar tinoacin ni iwcin isbunya i ca zeg irifien, maca di tidet amentil yeggwej cwayt xf tmezla u ntwara neccin belli amentil n tidet yejjin ayt waryigher ad oqben imerdas nes ghar teqbict nsen umi itseran ca ineghmisen ni tugha twazzuzzaran di Arrif u qqaren belli isbunya xsen ad daren zi tayzirt n nkur d badis ghar tmnadvt ni ghar s yudvsen maca iswi n tidet zeg uzuzzar n ineghmisen a huma ad jjen ayt warigher war swizan ca ak muhmed amezyan u wanita d awtil issares anabadv asbaniu xf imgharen n ayt warigher huma izemmar ad kidsen isigha deg imestagen.

Macao awed ghar negh ijj useqsi da nita nneghni deg usatal a beoda, mani yedja rmexzen ? waxxa nessen deg umezwar belli isekk umzyan ghar Fas huma ad kids tswiza deg umenghi nes ak Sbanya, maca di tidet ntaff rmexzen mara ikkar ad yass ad taff ad yass mgal i irifien wadji akidsen u d manaya imsaren nican deg waddad n umengni n userlliet, u iruh ak ughezdis uhwes asbaniu umi iwdven ad ggen ca iguta jar asen huma ad ggen ict tmnadvt di Arrif ad unghad usbaniu d rmexzen (13) u manaya ixes ad yini ijjen hajet ad qessen fus i tnezbayt tarrifect(14)

Rebda deg ussgwas n 1910, issenta umezyan oawed itnpezza, yarrwed tiqebbar adu tehngart nes min ijjin sbanya ad teddes ijjen sin n tantvagin tamezwart xf ubrid n tmurt zi Mritc tenni wis sin tugha txes ad tegg xf ubrid n yill maca war ghar s tiwid ca ad tegg

Di disamber 1911, rheggen d abarru n imerdas irifien ghar jnada zi senni kkin ghar dcar n izruren deg ayt buyafar, dinni isqasen isbunya tanya oawed tixessura

Deg ubrid nnegh di ridart n izran u huma ad nawed ad nades ujar ghar rexzrat irifien ghar waddad asertan deg ukud ni, ad ndar ca zzay sen :

Aya rqayed ameqran, ijapden s nneyet

Sidi muhmed amezyan, amjaped ahùarri

Iccaten s uzermadv itoawad s ufusi

Yejja mawasa n rhdvidv tserqqa timessi

Nigh oawed

Issudved usvemmid di tghellact n urumi

Indar d xafs arebbi aqeroi aya aweddi

Netta sidi mhned ijapden s arumi (15)

di may zeg ussgwass n 1912, s twiza n ca ixwannen d irifien wden ad ssnen isbunya amcan mani itiri uhngar arifi amezyan, maca war ikkar ad iwc iman nes i wakuc ar awarni ict tnzbayt d tameqrant zzay s, di tmesract umettin n izem a, twamudventt attas n tenfas d imyay xaf sen tt, ad idaregh ict zzay sen day inna wayyaw n umezyan « sareh naser » belli d ijjen Refqi iyenghin muhmed amezzyan umi i kids yezzudej di temzydva, maca iqseh bac ad nsfarez man tt tanfust yedjan nican, s umata nessen marra belli anuri nes yuss d xf ufus ixawwanen, ad nsigha ak izran issiwren xf raxart n wanag Arifi muhmed amezyan :

sidvi muhmed, yemmut ghar uoecci

ifah as urumi yekes it di karusa

yewed ghar wezru pemmar, yuta di karnitva

umi id ghad argwhen, argwhend di xemsa

treqa ten habiba tenn asen baba mani yedja

nennas babam yemmut tengh it harraqa

umi id as tt gha nini tessghuy uca tudva

yeqqim ur d abarcan ixebbec it umettva

tuss d tagrawla n muhmed amezyan d ict tarezzut xf tirelli yeffuden irifien zi zic umezruy, tuss d huma ad tini belli irifien netta d ijj waydud war ixes ca ahwes, u d manaya i ghad inin deg imar ak mulay muhned xmi ghad ggen tayduda tarrifect, min xf ghad nessiwel di tafult it id assen

tizmilin :

(1): CH.A. julien, le Maroc face aux impérialisme, 1978, p.43

(2) : إبن زيدان الإتحاف، ج 1 1990، ص 401

(3) : ع الوهاب بن منصور، أعلام المغرب العربي، ص 309

(4) : (adu uzemz n 25 muherrem 1324 / 17 , mares 1906, tabrat ni yefsar oabdel oaziz weppab ben mensur deg udlis ines)

(5) :الورياشي العربي، الكشف و البيان عن سيرة بطل الريف الأول سيدي محمد أمزيان، مطبعة المهدية تطوان، ط 1 1976 ص 115

(6) : الأدب الأمازيغي بالريف من الشفاهية إلى الكتابة و مأزق الترجمة، العمري ع الرزاق، 2008، ص 76

(7) : الريف قبل الحماية، ع الرحمان الطيبي، ص 299

(8): العربي الورياشي الكشف و البيان ص 116

(9) : نفسه

(10) :العربي اللوه المنهل ...ص204

(11) : ع الرحمان الطيبي الريف الحماية، قبائل ساحل الريف الاوسط، ص 332

(12) :نفسه

(13) :نفسه

(14) : العربي الورياشي م ش ص 131

(15)أبلقاسم الجطاري، ع الرزاق العماري، الأدب الأمازيغي بالريف من الشفاهية إلى الكتابة و مأزق الترجمة ص 47، 48

 

 

 

 

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