uïïun  174, 

mrayur 2961

  (Octobre  2011)

Amezwaru

 (Page d'accueil) 

Tamazight

is d talmmiççt i wanay vur zzat niv d asulf i wavul dffir?

Arrif di 122 n iseggusa

Axiyyq

Kartvaj

Français

Marghighda le jour du référendum

Faut-t-il avoir confiance en nos formations politiques?

Quand la langue amazighe est reléguée au second plan

Le retour inévitable de la culture amazighe

العربية

ترسيم الأمازيغية: فرصة للتقدم أم مناسبة للتراجع؟

اللسانيات الدينية أو ما في الجبة إلا الشيطان

دعوة المشرع المغربي إلى الإقرار صراحة بالقانون الكوني

قراءة في كتاب: وطنية باحتقار الذات

كتاب عن مجموعة أوسمان

حوار مع مجموعة مفتاح صول

المعجم الأمازيغي الفايسبوكي

شروط دراسة التاريخ الأمازيغي القديم

بيان تنسيقية تنمل

جائزة الطيب تاكل

بيان الرباط

بلاغ الشبكة الأمازيغية من أجل المواطنة 

 

 

 

Arrif di 122 n issgusa, Jar tirelli d uhwes (tafult tis kuz)

Yura t:Andich idir

Asenti d tanukra n tayduda tarrifect

Addad amatu jar 1912-1920

itoin ur nudjegh ca attvas umi nessiwer xf sidi mhned amezyan waxxa netta umi itraghan “bab n tnzbayt di timidi wis 20”, minzi imussuten nes nitni i yarzmen tiwwura xf tinneghni ujar xf tenni isrmden amadal di taryazt d tighit tenni n Mulay Muhned, uoawed di tidet aqqa mkur tigawt di Arrif tehdaj adlis ines wahdes, u danita ntassed neccin ghir huma ad nessaregh ca tfawin s umata (en general) xf min imsaren s tagdlet )en bref( bac ad nawed ghar iswan inssares deg usenti n tarezzut a.

mamec nessen di Mayyu 1912 nghin sidi Mhned Amezyan u qber ines s ca n wayyur d sin imalasen di 30 mares ad isinya asultvan aoalawi Oabdel hafid agatu n tahersa, xenni tamurt n Amarrakec ad tadef adu tqebbidvt n Fransa d Svbanya u ad asen tsellem timura nnes, bac ad arren zeoma amarwas nsen id itarsen i rmexzen.

Amarrakec xenni ira iteddar ijn waddad d aoeffan s wattas s unegmed min iqqnen ghar min idjan d ademsan (economique), adelsan,(culturelle), asertan,(politique),aydudan...

deg waddad a yeddar Arrif ussan nes ibarcanen awarni i wegraw n lxuzirat deg ussgwas n 1906 ikksen amhizwar ni itugha jar Aliman d Britvanya d Fransa d Svbanya, mani tettvef Svbanya Arrif d tiniri ughedjuy ( sehra) u tettvef Fransa Amarrakec.

tanzbayt tameqrant i yega Sidi Mhned amezyan i ysqas Svbanya deg wattas n txessura deg imenghan n Card ( kret ), Ighzar n wccen, Ijedvyawen ...

ismketta Madrid di txessura nes di Amrika n yffus (1899) d Lfilibbin (1898), marra manaya jjin tt ad tadef s ca-cway ghar Arrif awarni i 1912

aked min terqa n tnzbayt nneghni di Arrif-ughedjuy deg ukud ni, s unegmed awarni umi tudef Madrid ghar Tittawin assgwas n 1913, min isnekkaren ijjen tagrawla d tameqrant adu tehngart n umerdas n weld sidi lhsen, iggin ijjen uzeyyar d axatar xf tighermt n Tittawin, xelli tugha rebda takkwadven as d tibratin zeg umghar n Tittawin Xussi Marrina, tibratin ni i day s itzadjan, maca netta isigha di tanzbayt nes ar ami i xafs qdvan deg ussgwas n 1915 (1)

u yeqqar Oabdel oziz temsamani xelluq belli tanzbayt n yegga weld sidi lhsen d asighi n i tenni n Mhned Amzyan u yareni yeqqar “...aqqa din ict n tidet nneghni belli abarru n Irifien ssentan awarni i wsnag n Mhned Amezyan (1912) pekkwan ghar Arrif ughedjuy bac ad bedden ak tanzbayt tagherfant idja issgwar ccrif aoalami weld sidi lhsen...”(2) ad neqqim deg ughedjuy n arrif u di temnadvt n Laorayec d lqser lkbir tugha din ict tnzbayt nneghni xelli nettat tugha tudart nes d tazirat maca ur tettwassen ca attas, u mac tugha xf ixf nes amerdas ahmed tazya lweppabi nigh a mux id as traghan Mulay Lbeggar, tanzbayt ines tssenta zgw 1911 ar 1927 u teddar ujar zi 16 issgusa, u mara tanzbayt tamezwarut n sidi weld lhsen teqqen ghar Mhned Amezyan ntaff tameggarut a teqqen ghar umussu n Mulay Muhned.

u mamec tugha din ijjen wezday jar sin imussuten a, u ad iban ujar umi yarra uselway Mulay Muhned, Mulay lbeggar d Rqayed xf ayt orus (3)

u mara nbedd ghar min toawdven midden di Arrif ad taff ad nssij xf ict tmeqqant d taoeffant tesmun Svbanya tiqebbar am ayt tuzin d temsman d ayt uriccec awarni i wssgwas n 1912 s ca n imenghan msaren jar asen tesscmed day s Svbanya agra nsen, maca yetghima manaya d awar u yudes ghar tidet xelli amenni, ujar deg ukud ni ira mezri ameqran i ghar s ghar svbanya huma ad tawed ghar Beyya s mamec mma, u min yarnin addad ad yiri cway wapa, tzawa ( razagh) ni ireqfen Arrif manaya ira yedja d  tafart deg ufus n Svbanya bac ad tarni deg isuraf nnes adaxer i Arrif. ar mani tiwed deg ussgwas n :

1909 : ayt buyfrur, serwan, (iqeroien) Aoarwi ( ayt buyehyi )

1912: ayt cicar ( iqeroien)

1914: tizdvudvin ( ayt buyehyi )

1919: trata n bubkar (ibdvarsen)

1920: driwc ( ibdvarsen), midar ( ayt tuzin), Tafarsit, ayt soid, ayt uriccec
1921: anwar sidi dris ( tamsaman)(4)

dix di 1920, isbunya tugha ten deg uzru n tfarsit ( badu ibettan Ayt tuzin xf Tfarsit) d dpar ubarran ( tamsaman) u dg uzru n tfarsit ghad terqef raxart ur itwassen amentil nes babas n Mulay muhned Oebbkrim awaryigher, u deg unsa ni di ghad arnin Isbunya Irifien oawed tani
u zeg ughezdis nneden imeqranen n isbunya munen di tayzart n Nkur huma ad myannan xf waddad n arrif d man tt tibridin ghad dfaren huma ad adfen ghar taqbict n ayt waryigher, agraw i ghad ismunen sin ijiniralten imeqranen wenni n usemmar xf Maritc Silbistri d wenni n ughedjuy xf Tittawin Bringeyyir, u dag s innan s sin ayt sen ixess ad ssidfen adwas ( force ) mahned ad arnin tiqebbar ni i ghad kidsen ghad imenghen(5)

xenni isghuyy Bringeyyir zzat i twassit “ wa d amsagar nnegh ameggaru xf ubrid n yil, di radas ad nemsagar xf uorur n yeyysan nnegh xf ubrid ucar, minzi iymaren n Irifien ad ten nhekk s idaren nnegh” (6)

u ad ikunfirma Bringeyyir min inna di tezrut n Nkur i weghemmis n Telegramme del Rif s uzemz n 7-8 Abril 1921 u oawed tani deg uneqqis nnes i yssek i tanbadvt tasbanyut adu uzmez n 1921-04-17 (7)

taycit ni n trennawat d tenni ghad yejjen Sibistri ad yini iggwar ad nsu atay deg uxxam n Mulay muhned... maca di tidet ira war yessin min it itrajan deg ubrid ines ghar ayt warryigher.
ad nsbedd cway Krunulujya n tigawin a ad nedwer cway hima ad nessiwr xf tudart n Mulay Muhend zg wasmi irur ar 1920

Byugrafya n Mulay Muhend ar 1920

irur mulay muhned di teqbict n ayt warryigher assgwas n 1882, yeghra di tgherbazt di Tittawin, awarni mi ghad irah ghar fas huma ad infarar ak tghuri ines di tsdawit n Lqarawyyin umi tugha ghar s di buhber nes 20 issgusa, zeg ughezdis nneghni uma as M’hemmed ura d netta isqad it babas ghar Madrid hima ad isala tghuri ines di tinmel n Rmodven.

mulay muhned umi it ttugha di Fas idja idffar tasertit n wakud ni s unegmedv umi ttfen bu teghyuct dg iskney arni xafs umi ghedvren Oabdel oaziz ggin g wansa nnes Oabdel hafid (8)
jar 1907 d 1913, ad yiri mulay muhned di Mritc ghar umezwar ad yiri d aselmad n tmazight d taorabt i Irifien d Isbunya, mamec ghad yiri oawed d amessughel, xenni ad issenta itari deg ughemmis n Telegramme del rif, mani ira aselway n tira ines ijjen qqaren as Lubbin id as ywcin ict tafart deg ughemmis s taorabt.

xminni ineqqar i mulay muhned deg wakud ni nthada day s taterrart ( moderinité) d tameddanit ( laice)  d ufrak nnes ameqran s taymbiryilect tamedlant  u deg uttun n 29 n sayur 1911 zeg ughemmis n Telegramme del rif inna manaw ya “.. ruxa aqqa anegh deg ijj wakud nteddar adu tifawin n tighurma, u mara deg umezwaru ira tameqqant ismunan iwdan tbedd xf yijjed ( relegion), maca ruxa tameqqant a tbedda xf ca tmsrayyin d tughermawwin ujar, mayenzi tasertit d ijjen hajet u yjjed d ijjen hajet nneden...ixess anegh war ntwiri timesaryin zi teghmart n yjjed wapa, maca ixess anegh ad ten twara zi teghmart n uzarug ( indepdence)  d tunamurt ( nationalisme) d tirelli ...min tteg Fransa huma ad thadv xf tmura timezyanin ad isem n qasu (respect) n islam d imslmen ? tettar zeg imslmen ad arren taynit i yjjed, ad arnin timzidawin ... u tettraja lmepdi lmunatdvar d manaya i tarezzu Fransa u d manaya integgwed...”(9) di lltva n rxedvmet nes deg uslmed n taghemsa d ussughel, yarenid ghar s ijjen tawuri nneghni netta umi ira yedja d rqadvi nigh d aselway n taghdemt di Mritc, u ta nita d tawwuri idja ixeddem babas u s manaya Akulunil Muralis idja isrura ict tiqqet d tameqrant di Mulay Muhned, x manaya ad yawed ad imrussen ak ujiniral jurdana d Brinegyyir.

maca tanbadvt tasbaniut di twarat d ict ira tessen mlih belli mulay muhned aqet rebda mgal i tsertitin iteddfar Svbanya ak imgharen n tqebbar irifien, deg uzemz n 1 sayur 1915 issek Gbabila ijjen tiligram zi Nkur ghar unammas n wendap di Mritc iqqar day s “...ghar negh ca ineghmisen kunfirman anegh belli refqi Obkrim itraja twassit n memmis ssi Mhned zi Mritc huma ad xeddmen marra mgal i sbnaya u adwar ines ghar Mritc yetghima di rmuhar u arennin ineghmisen nneghni qqaren belli twassit a nnes ghar ayt waryyigher d amizi d ameqran ( grand danger ) xf Svbanya (10) di 06 simbtamber ad ttvfen Mulay muhned alahsab umi yenna zeoma i lkabbtin Siset aselway uzemmem imezdagh n beyyan belli netta immexes Fransa u itxes Aliman u yesstim ad tarni bac ad yettvef Arrif i war itwahwsen azarug nnes (11)

xenni ad yettvef Akulunil Rikwilmi Mulay Muhned xelli dinni jar asen ict tiddukla d tameqrant, u ad itwahhbes di tkurmut ( prisone) “Kabbaliziras” di Mritc, di 23 Dujambir idja ixes ad yarwer maca ghar umeggar yarrez zeg udvar, ad iraja ar ussgwas n 1918 id as ghad arxun, uca ad irhheg ghar wejdir mani babas idja itraja tt dinni u ad yiri d amqran n ayt waryigher awarni i umettin n babas Obkrim di tfarsit di 07 ghuct 1920, u danita bac ad yawed mulay muhned ghar min ghar s deg wadji nnes ira dinni zzat s krad imunas d imeqqranen ixess ad ten ygg huma abrid nes ghar tayduda tarrifect ad yiri yudes :

Amnus amezwar : huma ad yaff ca tebridt zi ghad ismun jar yexsan n ayt waryyigher u ad yeodva ghar jar tqebbar marra, u manaya war yepwin ca mara nekkar nessen mammec idja iteddar arrif deg ukud nes deg waddad nnes asertan d udelsan ... jar ktar amenghi ni ameqran i dinni jar yxsan n teqbict n Ayt waryyigher maca surif amezwar iyegga Mulay muhned netta d agraw ni ismunen jar yexsan n Teqbict n ayt warryigher nigh “adjun xf cettvhen tt tiqebbar nniden amec yaqqar Dabid Part”, deg imzuren g uzemz , 20 simbtamber 1920 (12) da nita itic anegh d Muhmed lpadi  deg udlis ines “izem n arrif” ijj uzemz nneghni di yemsar wegraw netta d 21 Ferbayer 1921, maca xelli ameni yetghima agraw d axatar s wattas, minzi day s iwcin roaped ayt warryigher i Mulay muhned hima ad bedden deg wudem uhwes Asbaniu u day s ghar yized ghar tamunt n “ wadun xf cetthen Irifien” amnus wis sin :  mahned ad yaff taggara i tnamit ni ira yedjan deg waydud arrifi n tinighni n wayawya, u wanita zeg imentilen iyegga usbaniu huma ad yadef ghar Arrif, u smanaya arrin Lmehkama n Rmzemmett itareyyan s izerfan n Arrif, netta ghar iwcen tasghart i mkur ijjen (13) bra ma ad inegh uma as.

amnus wis krad: d asmuni n tamunt n tqebbar yudsen ghar ayt warryigher am Ayt tuzin d temsaman, bac ad swizan tt deg usbeddi n ticri n isbunya zeg usemmar ines d ughedjuy (14) awarni umi tudva Accawen d tfarsit d dpar ubarran deg ufus n Svbanya, mani ghad isqad Mulay Muhned ghar Ujiniral silbistri ict tebrat itzadja day s mara yeodva yeghzar ameqran

Anwar... abrid ghar tirelli

yeqqar Ruji Matiu areqqas n ughemmis Afransis “Matin” belli amenghi n wenwar yuss d awarni i wattas n imenghan imezyanen zeg umenzu 1921 umi tssenta svbanya tades ghar tqebbar am Temsaman d Ayt tuzin d Ayt warryigher deg ukud ni idja Svbanya netta intvgen i irifien ghar min teoqqaben ghar udeffar (15)

mamec tisekkirin tiserdasin war qqimen tt acnaw min yeodvan u bdvan irifien ntvgen ra d nitni s djiret, awarni i txessart n Tfarsit isbunya tghiren amenni ghad rahen iseddyen n imenghan nneghni, maca war tessin belli deg wass n 26 zi Arendan itmqabaren ak umenzu n yunyu ira sswajjaden irifien ijj untvag d ameqran xf ddpar ubarran di ghad sqasen irifien ict twarat nneghni svbanya ict txessart d tamrzzagt.

Dpar ubarran ghar negh neccin iriifen itwassen ujar zeg imenghan nneghni, u xafs ifetren temgharin izran, mani s drus irifien nghin ujar 150 isbunya u day s isqeddcen Imerdas Irifien imeyra huma ad wten Isvbuniya, u xf tixutra n umenghi ya yeqqar Jerman Oeyyac “ s mgal  mammec idja yetghir Bringeyyir d Silbistri, belli amenghi n dpar ubarran d netta ghad yarnin di taryazt i yrifien ...netta iyjjin Mulay muhned ad isscmed marra igharruba nes, arrin tt tiqebbar marra ad xafs nndven tt huma ad ten tt yawi ghar trennawt, g wass ni, yekkar umenghi mgal i urubba taymbiryalect, u netta amenghi agherfan amezwaru ... deg wansa ni deg wakud ni iyessneta umeghni n Arrif” (16)

awarni i ddpar ubarran ad ttfen irifien attas imucan ghar yedja tixutra zzay sen Sidi dris di Temsaman di Tizi oezza deg Ayt tuzin bac ad awden ad qessen mammec ma tegga ca n twiza zi Mritc ghar Silbistri u qessen tt nican di sin n twaratin awrud ma ad yekkar umenghi n wanwar dg uzemz n 19 d 16 n yulyuz, awarn as ad yemsar umenghni zi ghad ttwassnen irifien ghar umadal amen ikmer deg wass n 21 n sayur, mani sbnaya ad tqass tanya taxssart nes  i war iqettin zzat irifien d tighit n Mulay muhned d tabghest n irifien, di 21 sayur ad isscen aydud a amezyan amadal mechar tsekkwa tirelli.

xminni indakkwar ghar igumad ( les resultas) n wenwar, ntaff imarezzuten deg umezruy temsbdvan xf wattas jar Rubirt Furnu i yennan aqqa irifien nghin ujar zi 18,000 usbaniu d Migil Martan d Loalami muhmed d tanbadvt tasbanyut i yennan inni innurien war odvin 8.000 ijj !!! (17) irifien di tugha djan di 600 ayt sen zzat i 24,000 umerdas asbaniu.
da idja iyxes silbistri ad isu atay deg uxxam n Mulay muhned ghar umeggar ingha ixf ines di texzant am ca n tyazidt d tamaggwadt, mani imerdas nnes idja sessen ibeccicen nsen ak skwar.
awarni i wmenghni n wenwar idja ixes ajiniral Nabaru ad imezzegh xf uoarwi maca oawed tani ad asen imerdas d imjapdven irifien ad ten wsqen zi senni di min itwasssen s roaped uoarwi, di 02 ghuct Nadur d Serwan ad ghar s tiri tirelli, di 09 ghuct Svbanya war ghar s yetghimi mghir Mritc d sebta d teyzirin iceffaren

maca azegal i yegga Mulay muhned netta umi war yejji aserdas arrifi ad yadef ghar Mritc, u oawed umi war yudif ghar Fas deg yeffus n Tayduda, u imri yemsar wadaf a d usrillet ad tiri teffegh svbanya d Fransa qao zi Arrif, amec yenna Saoid Lxettvabi, tidet azegal a netta zeg imentilen ghad yejjen tayduda tarrifect ad tudva.

Tanbadvt d taddiblumasect Tarrifect

tarennawt n wenwar tejja Mulay Muhend ad isqad ghar imegharen n tqebbar huma ad ggen ca useqqim i ghad issarsen tamndawt n tayduda tarrifect mani aghetas amezwaru id ifghen zeg ugraw ni ad sselmsen aseqqim amatu adu isem n tmsmunt tanamurt Tanya arrin ass n 18 simbtamber d ass uzarug n tayduda tarrifect )18(

Aghtas amezwru n tmsmunt tanamurt )association national( d afsar uzarug anamur d uselmes n tanbadvt tamendawct i tayduda tarrifect idjan aselway ines d Mulay Muhned, u amesdwer n temndawt tarrifect yuymed wur nnes weg izerfan idja zi gguren irifien d imazighen, surif nneghni netta d roapedv anamur ighad isscnen i wmadal tasertit ighad yedfar Mulay Muhend

1- tayduda tarrifect wer tkessi ca zg ugatu itehadan ammur ujar agatu n tahersa n 1912

2- ufugh n isbunya zi Arrif

3- ad twc svbanya tmenyat xf uhwes n 11 issgusa itegga y arrif u ad tarxu incraf irifien i ghar s
4
-svbanya ad teotaref s uzarug n irifien

5 -aselmes n tmeqqanin ak marra timura umadal

6 -tettar tayduda ad tiri deg ugraw n tmura imunen

U xf wi yedjan di tenbadvt msbdvan attas inemzruyen d imarezzuten xf bettu n ighebura isbunya d ifransisen d imarrak maca mstfaqen x manaya

Aselway amezwru mulay muhend

Amawas n tmesrayyin n barra mhmed azeraqn

Amawas n tmesrayyin ugensu mhemmed lxettvabi

Amawas n tademsa oebdslam lxtvabi

Tanbadvt a tegga tizemmar nes xf sin iswiren , aswir ugensu d wenni n barra, di min iqqnen ghar tmesrayyin n ugensu idja yemsar asrusi n ijj uwank d aterrar x uyenni itwarzem umsawad ak marra tiqebbar di Arrif, mahned ad ggen aserdas arifi, u zeg ismawen ira yedjan deg undap amatu n udwas arifi ntaff xeriru, coib n mmuh, heddu umhned amezyan, muhmed himmic rqayed buhut )19(… marra ismawen a tugha ten xf uzedjif userdas arifi u mac yiwed uttun n iryazen ira yedjan deg userdas ghar 130.000 n ijj

Maca min yedjan yesbeh di tayduda tarrifect ntaff taqbict amenni ijjin tamlilt nes wer tbeddren ca iqqim rqqayed itioiyar tamlilt nes am di qber u arrnin as min yedjan d amaynu am uzemmem n inni id itruren di yenni itmettan d tmsrayin n remracat u yarru ddaribatt maca wer ikessi ujar zi min tenna tanbadvt )20 (

Deg ussgwas n 1923 issek mulay muhned attas ireqqasen ghar timura n urubba huma ad fsaren imentilen n umenghi nsen ak svbanya u huma ad zay sen ksen ca wawar zi ghad ttfen amcan i tyaduda tarrifect dg wegraw n tmura imunen di Juniv

Ireqqasen arrif kkind Lundun, Baris, Telmsan…maca xelli ura d ict tmurt ghar mani rahen wer tuci tesghart i tayduda di taydji ines, maca attas n iryazen n tsertit ira aqqa ayen akids di tesghart nes am Kurdun Kaning di Lundun d Walter Harris aneghmas n ughemmis n Times d Pwartiu tcabbarita bab n wgra abaski d uzermad afransis Bertun …

U mammec attas n temsmunin sekken di Amrika n yeffus sekken tt id tibratin ghar Mulay Muhned, u snwjwen tt id ghar sen, u arrin tt amux Simun Bulibar amerdas itwassnen di Amrika talatint, tagrawla tarrifect tesrurd amyannan imghar di urubba d asya d Amrika … u attas n inzbayen am Maw tsi tung d puji munp d tci guibara ksin zi tasmqult nnes deg usrillet.

S uya nzzemmar ad nini belli tadiblumasect tarrifect ira xf uzedjif ines Mhemmed Lxettvabi tegga tizemmar d timeqranin deg usefsar n tghswasa tarrifect deg umadval, maca tidwas timberyalin ira tbeddan tt deg udem ines

U ttetghima tayduda tarrifect tuss d deg ijjen wakud Taymbiryalect tamedlant ira tiwed tqiccet ines, u awarni i tagrawla tabulcufit ghad isruren ijjen uwank tamunt isubyaten, ghad yadfen deg umenghi asvemmadv ak Umirikan awarni i wemenghi amedlan wiss sin

Akud n tayduda yuss d oawed di trarit n awuri asertan n pitlir ghad iggen taydyulijit n Inazien, ak min tugha iteddar amadval deg igumadv n umenghi amadval wis yan, s uya deg waddad a amedlan ad trur tayduda dig had taff imxumbar d imeqranen mayenzi xmi ghad tadef deg umenghi ak fransa, ad tdwer tamsract tarrifect ad tmxumber ujar, jar ktar Rmexzen Amarruk ad itzwara Mulay Muhned am ijjen rrugi nneghni yarezzu anbadv, u d manaw ya ghad yini Yussef deg ict tebrat ines u deg wawar ines di Fransa xmi ghad ghedvren Taydvudva tarrifect, di tafult nneghni ad narni ad nessiwel xf imentilen ghad imsmracen jar asen i ghad issvewdvan asenfar asertan n Mulay Muhned d tmsract n warpaj umi ghad nwec tasghart ines di tghurri ya integg.

(Asedvfar deg uttvun i d itasen

*****

Imessdwar

(1) عبد العزيز خالتمسماني خلوق، أسماء مغمورة لقادة الجهاد، مجلة دار النيابة ع 12
(2)
عبد العزيز خلوق دراسات في تاريخ شمال المغرب المعاصر، الدار البيضاء 1996، ص 33 و 34
(3)
أحمد الحليمي-ج- الريف المغربية، ع 8 ص 10
(4)
ملحق خرائط كتاب أصول حرب الريف لجرمان عياش
(5)
محمد محمد عمر القاضي أسد الريف محمد عبد الكريم الخطابي مذكرات حرب الريف، تطوان1979 ص 43
(6)
نفس المرجع ص 101
(7) Germain ayyache «les orogines de la guerre du Rif» op, cit , p 318 (8)
محمد العلمي، زعيم الريف محمد بن عبد الكريم الخطابي، منشورات أطلسية، الدارالبيضاء، ص 5
(9) Germain ayyache ibid; p . 185 / 186
(11) Germain ayyache ibid p 216
(12)
أحمد البوعياشي، حرب الريف و مراحل النضال، منشورات جسوس و شوسبريس ج 2 1975 ص 57 58
(13) 
نفسه

(14(

علي الإدريسي، عبد الكريم الخطابي، التاريخ المحاصر منشورات ثيفراز 2010 ص 42 43

)15عز الدين الخطابي، محمد عبد الكريم الخطابي القائد الوطني، منشورات ثيفراز ص 28 (

(16)Germain ayyache “les orogines de la guerre du rif” op cit p 332

)17 علي الإدريسي، نفس المرجع، ص 62(

ميكيل مرتين، الإستعمار الإسباني بالمغرب، ص 66 (18

محمد العلمي، مرجع مذكور، ص 26 ، ( 19)

نفس المرجع (20)

 

 

 

 

 

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