uïïun  175, 

ymrayur 2961

  (Novembre  2011)

Amezwaru

 (Page d'accueil) 

Tamazight

mulay hicam issavul d "ddahir lbarbari"

tinfas n imçyanen

Arrif di 122 n iseggusa

Tinfas n imezvyanen

Français

Quel destin pour la question amazighe au Maroc?

Priscien, grammairien africain

Le verbe en amazigh

VI° Congrès général du cma

Journée d'étude amazighe au Mexique

العربية

الأمير مولاي هشام يحيي الظهير البربري

الدواعي الفكرية والسياسية لمعيرة اللغة الأمازيغية

أين وصل ترسيم الأمازيغية؟

إلى كل مواطنة ومواطن مغربي

أمازيغ الويكيليكس بين أميريكا والإسلاميين

تناقضات جزب العدالة والتنمية

الأمازيغية الخائنة والنخبة المعزولة

الشيخ عبيد: فكاهي من زمن آخر

بيان بشأن تصريحات مولاي هشام حول الأمازيغية

وطائف الإمام في القبيلة الأمازيغية

القناة الأمازيغية

اختتام المهرجان الوطني للمسرح الأمازيغي

رسالة الشبكة الأمازيغية إلى رئيس الحكومة

إصدار جديد للكاتب لحسن ملواني

معتقلو القضية الأمازيغية يخوضون إضرابا عن الطعام

ختام المؤتمر السادس للكنكريس العالمي الأمازيغي

مهرجان الموسيقى الإفريقية بورزازات

جائزة أبوليوس للأدب الأمازيغي بالريف

بيان المرصد الأمازيغي

 

 

 

Arrif di 122 n issgusa: Jar tirelli d uhwes (tafult tis smus)

Yura t: Andich idir

Wettvu n tayduda tarrifect

Imsttugen ak svbanya

Zzat i trennawin ghar wedven irifien ad ggen s tirrugza nsn d tighit n uhngar arrifi Mulay Muhend, teqqim svbanya tettbpedv weddaren tt as marra tafarin ni tugha ghar s jar ifassen nnes, oemmar s ma urjan ura deg imxentisen nsen ad qasen tarzugi n txessart am tanita.

Tayccit s txssart tedvra xf isbunya, u da umi yedvra ijjen userdas d asbanyu di rmarss n Malaga issghuyy, «ad yeddar yill! « umi i t seqsan xf umentil i t yejjin huma ad yini manw yenni inna asen «mri war yedji d yill (rebhar) tiri irifien aqqa ayen ruxa dg uftas (plage) n Bsikaya» (1)

Mamec ttaren attvas n ikabaren di Svbanya huma ad sbedden amenghi nsen ak Arrif zzay sen akabar Acyuoi d takunfidarelct tanamurt n ixeddamen d amuni amatu n ixeddamen, u sekken d ikabaren ikatvaluniyen tibratin n twiza ak tayduda ttarifect…

Ujar yenna Ajiniral Migil Brimu di Ribyyira deg Ukurtis (aberlaman asbanyu) deg wass n 25 nubambir 1921 «zg ict teghmart tastratiject, twarigh belli asqadi ca userdas nneghni ghar awarni i yill ad yiri d aoeffan i Svbanya» (2)

Tettwag oawed ict n teyrawt d tamezvyant huma ad tghar imentilen n tidet yejjin svbanya ad tudva zzat i irifiyen qqaren as i yisem ines «tayrawt n Bikasu» issentan rxedmett nes di 18 zi abril 1922, u ghar imentilen ghar tiwedv tayrawt a, zzay s xf ibedd umswadv jar sin n ighezdisa asbanyu d urifi, imsawaden zi ghad ysnufser Mulay Muhend inecraf isbunya, umi teqber tanbadvt tasbanyut tiwtilin (les conditions) issares Mulay muhned u nitni d yina:

1) asnufser n marra inecraf irifien

2) ad twc Svbanya Melyun bbsita d axdjes xf marra min tega Svbanya di Arrif

3) kradv n imelyunen n bbsita d axdjes xf udraq n inecraf isbunya (3)

Deg uzemz n 24 yulyuz 1923 ad issek Muhmed azarqan aneghlaf n tmsrayyin n barra n tayduda tarifect ict n tebrat i tanbadvt tasbanyut ad zzay nidar cway: «aqqa tanbadvt tarrifect itwaggen xf ddsas d aterrar, tarra ixf ines ghar s azarug asertan d udemsan, tessitim ad teddar amec ddaren marra igherfan umadal di tirelli, twara belli ghar s tasghart deg ucar ines qber i ca n tmurt nniden mux ma tegga … u arrif netta iggwar ad issuyar ixf nes s ixf nes …ad imezzegh xf uzarug nnes s marra tibridin yedjan … u qqaregh belli arrif ur izemmar ad yuyar ghar zzat ak

svbanya bra ma tameggarut a ur tgerr s uzarug n arrif» (4)

dix amec nethada di tebrat a issek uneghlaf arrifi, belli Arrif ur izemmar ad yuyar ghar zzat deg imsttugen itegg ak svbanya bra mara war teotiref tameggarut a s uzarug d tirelli n tayduda tarrifect…

da ur nzemmar ad nidar marra timenna i tugha yeqqar Mulay muhned di dg imsagaren nnes ak taghemsa nigh ra di tebratin nnes, di tkunfirma x uzarug n Arrif, mara wami tuffa svbanya iqseh xafs adtsigha deg imenghan dg ukud ni ak userdas arrifi, ffghen imsawaden jar sin ighezdvisa ghar manaw ya:

1) Agerri s uzarug n Arrif u s Mulay Muhned d aselway n tayduda tarrifect

2) hettvu n Svbanya i wzarug n Arrif

3) asmskel deg yeyyar n tsebbabt

4) ad twc tanbadvt tarrifect d tanbadvt tasbanyut taghllest i yrifien d isbunya idjan ssnej xf ucar nsen tt

5) aqbar n sbnaya ufugh zi Arrif

Dix, ina d iguta yedjan d ixataren i tssares tanbadvt tasbanyut xf teqrint nes tarrifect, maca wami tugha war d as yeqqim walu ad sinyan amstfaq a jar asen, ykkared ujinirak Brimu di Ribyyira huma ad iqreb ajartir xf igeni asbanyu s twiza n ujedjid Alfunsu, huma ad iqess abrid xf imsawaden ni d ufughen ni ghar wdven sin ighezdvisa di qber, xenni Madrid ad tentvegg xf redcur yudvsen ghar rmars n nkur s teylalin nes,

din ghad udavn tt Tanya rmayna att n warpaj xf redcur n arrif

Amyawaz n rmxzen d Fransa d Svbanya xf Arrif

Ar danita tugha Fransa teddfar ar mani iwdven imenghan jar Arrif d Svbanya, u tugha ttghir belli taydji n ca n tayduda d tmazight deg yezzlmedv nnes netta d amizi xafs, xelli Mulay Muhned netta tugha issen belli adaf ak ca n umenghi ak Fransa war itiri ca ak ughezdis ines minzi issen belli sin n tidwas imgharen deg umadval ak tayduda tarrifect ad tyawi ghar wettvu nnes, maca Fransa nettat war txes hima ad tsghawer ca n tayduda ghar s azarug nnes di tqiccet n taymbiyalect, x manaya ttugha rebda tarezzu xf imentilen zi ghad tadvef ak ca umenghi ak Arrif, ammu ad tades Fransa ghar yezzlmedv n Wergha i tugha yedjan adu aryyay n Irifien (5)

Deg wass n 13 abril 1924 ad ntvgen irifien xf wammas n Amejjutv u yudes igeni arrifi arahar ar tighermt n taza mamec idja yedja ghar tileggwit n Aynawen yegwjen xf tighermt n Fass s 30 ukilumiter, timsrayin a ad jjen tt Fransa ad tssek ijjen ureqqas ghar uxccab umghar qqaren as Kabrilli, xenni inna Mulay Muhned belli tayduda tarrifect rebda tugha tessitim ad teddar deg wafra ak Fransa maca tameggarut a nettat yxsen ad tsiwed tameqqant a am xf tedja rexxu u oawed yenna Mulay Muhned «Fransa nettat yxsen ad thwes Arrif … u ixess as ad tkez (ad tgerr, Confission) s uzarug n Arrif» (6)

Maca di tidet Fransa amec nnigh andjinna nettat oemmars ma dja txes ad tejj Arrif ad yeddar dg wafra d tirelli.

Di yunyu 1925 di Madrid ad itwagg ijen wegraw ad ismun Fransa d Svbanya huma ad zdyen jar asen deg umenghi iten ismunan mgal i tayduda tarrifect, u deg ukud ni ad tkkes Fransa Lmarical Lyutvi issarsen dsas n uwank aorab di tmurt amarrakec netta yfarnen izli anamur n Marrakec u yfarn Tanya acenyal nnes, u ad yegg Arbatv d ipri nes deg wansa n Fass, marra manaya ntaff it ardjexu u ntaff tamurt n Marrakec ydwren isem nnes ghar Lmeghrib ad thwes Tamurt n Arrif di min d yussin deg imstafqen nes ak Fransa di Ikes liban u ak Madrid, asntel a ghar nedwer ad xafs nessiwer mlih di min d yussin…

Amc nnigh bbaris ad tkkes Lyutvi u ad tegg deg wansa nnes ijjen lmarical nneghni qqaren as i ysem nnes Tyudur stig … u ad tsek iserdasen carcen deg umenghi amedlan wis yan (7) u di 8 simbtamber 1925 ad issenta uzday jar Fransva d svbanya.

Maca di tidet imri ttugha yiwed Mulay Muhend ghar ca n ufugh ak Fransa bac war kids itidef ca deg umenghi minzi d azegal d ameqran ad tmnghed ak sin tidwas timeqranin deg umadval

Dey yeyyar a ixess anegh war ntettu ca tamlilt tameqrant irar rmxzen amarrakec deg umenghi nnes ak Taydvudva Tarrifect i ytwara d ijjen umizi xafs, ura xef taydji nnes, asentel i ghar nedwer di min yudvsen. Mamec tugha din Ca n tqebbar nigh ca n yxsan zi tqebbar tirefyyin i tugha imeqranen nsen tt xeddmen ak Fransva u zzay sen Rqayed Lmedvbuh, amghar n igzennayen, u iksi isem a xminni id as ghad ghaasen irifien, umi ittugha ixeddem iznuza i Fransa, Lmedvbuh yejja Omar ben hamidu amghar imernsan d umghar ibdvarsen huma ad swizan mgal i Mulay muhned (8) , mamec dja din attas n zzawya att i tugha xeddement ak Fransa am zzawit taderqawect inezra ak umussu n sidi Mhned amzyan d buteghyuct arni xafs zzawect ikettanien, inasirien, iwezzanien, itijianien, tameggarut a ixedmen mahned ad sbedden tagrawla n Obrqada Adzayiri u x manaya yeqqar Mulay Muhned belli zeg imentilen it yejjin hima ad yessbed asenfar nnes asertan d rexdvmett n zzawect a tameqrant ak Fransva d Svbanya

U oawedv yenni umi ghad semman s inamuren (iwatvanien) zgi iburjwazien n Fass ggin tizemmar d timeqranin huma ad sbedden tagrwala n Irifien u ttugha traghan as i Mulay Muhned s «rrugi» d «lfettan» u amc ira traghan i ayt bab n tnzbayt irifien s «lbarabira» iffghen ghar tukkardva (9)

Dix imarrakcien zi rmxzen d iburjwazien ayyawen imuriskien marra tgwdven zi trennawin ittggen irifien maca di twarat d ict ntaff tgwdven ujar xminni txessar Fransa nigh Svbanya u di 1922 tugha kessin tioedjanin tzadjan ghar wakuc huma ad issgenfa Lmarical Lyutvi atarras issarsen ddsas i lmerruk amc nnigh di min yeodvan zi rattvan ni it ireqfen, maca waxxa tugha din twiza jar krad n tidwas tamwezwarut n Svbanya d Fransa d rmexzen mgal i tayduda tarrifect tamezyant di tzemmar nnes ntaff di twarat d ict irifien ggin attas n trennawin u uwdven ghar redruf n tighermt n Fass deg yeffus nnes u ttaf i tighermt n Tittvawin xf ughedjuy n Arrif, zzat i waddad id tussa twiza ya taxatart jar asen, da Fransa ad tssujed abarru zi tidwas nes tiserdasin zzay s 325 aref n urgaz d 44 n wayrafen n teylalin (ttvyaratt), u ujar zi 52 ujiniral amec yenna asertan Afranssis Birkillu stirman deg wawar nnes di tmsmunt tanamurt itwazzmem aseqqim nes deg uzmez n 02 yunyu 1956, maci ghir manaya wapa ak min issujed Leglawi axatar amexzani zeg ughedvis uhwwes amarrakec ujar zi 400 aref n urgaz d imarrakcien ak 100 aref uryaz d asbanyu (10)

U mara nekkar ad neyru marra uttvunen a ad naff ujar zi 800 aref n uryaz mgal ak ca n ruruf d udvrussen zeg ughezdvis n irifien i tugha war teodi 150 aref tkmer, maca di tidet ntaff oawed ra d imirikanien ttugha ten ak imbiryalien ina dja ttvfen aghezdvis n teylalin u di sdis imalasen twaggent ujar zi 350 n tsekkirin u tendar ujar zi 40 ttvun n rmaynatt (11)

Deg yeyyar a ad tessek fransa ghar Mulay muhned huma ad itwagg ijjen wegraw di Ujda ad day s innurzem umsawadv jar sin ighezdisa umenghi huma ad awdven ghar ca n ufughen i tmukrist tarrifect, xenni ad issek Mulay Muhned aneghlaf n tmesrayyin n barra Muhmed Azarqan maca ak unurzem n wegraw banen tt id timesrayin i ghad yarzen tt agraw a s unegmedv ak min yessares uhwes n iwtilen am:

Yan: ad irin irifien adu wenbadv ujedjid

Sin: ad ssigwjen Mulay muhned

Krad: amsbudder inecraf

Kuz: ad kksen i tqebbar resnah

Zzat umi ghad adfen irifien deg imstugen ak fransa nitni ttaren ad tgerr zg uzarug m tayduda tarrifect maca min yessares uhwes ijja ugraw a ad yarez awrud ima ad irur, maca amec twaran ca imarezzuten deg yeyyar umezruy belli agraw a d tastratijit zi fransa ghir huma ad tarnu ghar s akud, amya ad munen imbiryalien ad ntvgen xf arrif zg yeffus, izzelmed, asammar, aghedjuy nes s ujar n uzyen melyun userdvas zg ifranssisen d isbunya d imarrakcien, idzayrien, itunsien, ifirkien itawssnen s Lgum s thengart n lkabtin Cmit arni ghar s ra d imxaznien n Yussef s lmehallat nnes … igeni ya i oemmars war tezri tamurt n tamezgha zeg wakud ikartvajien arni ghar s s ixwanen am omar ben hamidu d Lbacir amghar n lbranes d lmedvbuh d ukriminal yeggin tamgharsut n ibeqquyen Bucetta lbeghdadi amghar n Fass d bent taper Lbaca n Azemmur, jjilali amghar m crada bni hsen d ben omar amghar n zoir … (12) u s usuyes n warpaj ad awdven ad scmdven redcur s iwdvan nes d marra min yeddaren di tmurt n Arrif.

Min yegga uzeyyar ad as ikemmer arpaj

Tugha iqseh s wattvas xf irifien hima ad sighan deg umenghi nsen deg uswir ni di ssentan, zzat i wayrafen n ttvyaratt i tugha tsqada Fransa zi rmars att nnes da issirw Walter Parris areqqa n ughemmis n Times talundunit xf min yezra «…min d anegh itejjan nttebpett netta d assuyes n remaynatt xf waccawen deg wakud mani yeryazen izemmaren ad ksin resnah tiri war djin di tighermt, s wayraf n teylalin timirikaneyyin s twiza ak tenni tifransisin, u x manaya ruhen d taghtast attas n temgarin d ihnjaren, mac nyzmen attas zzay sen u caafen ten» (13)

Rmaynatt ni idja seccuren s rgaz n Lvaskin ioeddmen deg idmaren d rgaz n lluset ioeddmen di tirmect d tarut d rgaz n ddug d lklurikit ioeddmen di tittawin d tarut …

Arnid ghar sen attas n ddwab n rgaza att ineqqen am rgaz n NB d lfusfur awragh d rgaz n iliktvrun d uxerdal d luksul …

S warpaj a akimawi d upidrujini i zi teccuren rmeynatt isscmadven ssuysen tt xf tayduda ttarifect Tamazight u tejja ujar zi 3000 wanag d min tejja d tiouffna xf tawennadvt, s unegmedv tenni icarrzen u isghmmayen tedvwer d amssuci, arni xafs tejja Rattvan deg imezdvagh n Arrif di min iqqnen ghar icemmudven n termect d rattvan n Tifwid d tmessi tawraght idvrin Arrif deg ussgwas n 1925, u txiss angh ad nessen belli oad ar djuxa ntaff arahar azyen ameqran ni ipercen s uxenzir zi Nadur nigh Beyya, Accawen, Tittawin amec yeqqar usinag n Ikulujia s iman tt nes di Arrbatv, u yeqqar aduktur Ctultsburg Pugu «Stolzberg Hugo» deg yeyyar a « rmayna n Llust itessuyes taylalt deg imenghi itegga svbanya di Marrakec mgal i tqebbar tireffyin tiwid ict ternnawet deghya deghya xf ubridv n usezubi n dcuratt yedjan xf timura n wezru nigh deg iraqqen n wedrar» u yarennyi yeqqar oawedv « ijjen xf 500 (1\500) zg ict tudimt zi Lgaz n llust izemmar ad yarr ires ixmej min tt ghad yejjen ad immet bab n yires» (14)

U itxxis anegh ad nessen belli di twarat tamezwart deg umezruy ad itwassuyes warpaj zg ujenna, u mara Oali lidrissi deg udlis ines yarezzu ad issigwej tamasayt n Rmxzen deg umeghi ya ntaff Muhmed lqjiri zg ijjen ughezdis nneghni itwara belli Rmxzen ra d netta yudef s ca n tebridvt nigh s tenneden di tmasayat a n warpaj, u mara mgal i min nenna ad taff mayemmi ghad yesqar rmxzen xf ukaram a ? mayemmi ig ibelleo larcif nnes deg udem imarezzuten d waydud ? di tmeqqant ak usentel a inna Sibastien Balfur amaru udlis n «udvarreo ineqqen» (Embrace Deadly) xf umenghi n warpaj « di min itwassnen belli Ajedjidv amerruki yesqar xf usentel a, u nec ssnegh belli netta issen aqqa Svbanya tesxdvem arpaj, s unegmed da amadal amen ikmer issiwer xf usentel a, u ar teghemsa tamedlant tessawar xf usexdvem n Sbanya i warpaj di tmnadvt a « (15)

Ar akabar aydudan akatalani itwara belli tamsayt tcarc jar Rmxzen d Svbanya ujar zi manawya tettwafsar ict tafart teqqar belli « ajedjid Mly yussef ntta ittaren zi Svbanya ad uten Arrif s warpaj minzi hawes asbaniu d ufransis alahsab agatu n tahersa ixess asen ad mezzghen xf Rmxzen, u da itwara yussef belli tayduda tarrifect am ca tasedma iceffaren xf uxedjif nnes Lfettan Mulay Muhned, amec rebda id as yeqqar yussef i mulay muhned «(16)

U necc twarrigh belli Arrifubya netta ijjin ra d Svbanya nigh ra d Fransa akid sen rmxzen ad sqaren xf usexdvem n warpaj di tesghart n irifien, u maci ghir ina isqaren, maca ntaff ra d inni ghad ihsben ixf nsen d inni ghad imzzghen xf uzarug n Marrakec war tugha tidaren ra d timegga n Mulay Muhned xelli oad ad idaren nigh ad sghuyyen xf tesghart n irifien, tumghezt i Arrif zi rebda tedja amec tedja oad rux, inni issawaren xf tamunt tanamurt, teggoadven xf tifray umezruy izwghen s tezwegh n idvammen n irifien inghin ra deg uhwes ra deg uhwes nneghni ghad yassen deg ussgwas n 1956.

Di 27 mayy 1926, Mulay muhend umi itwara temsara ict temgharsut zzat nnes u amadal amen ikmer isqar, ixess ad isbedd manaya u iwca ixf ines i Fransa, xenni ad yekka ujar zi 21 ussgwas di teyzirt n Larinyun, u xmi id ghad yedwer ghar Misra ad taff xenni din ijjen wawar xafs nneghni oawed.

Min itwannan di tesghart n Mulay Muhned

Mayemmi rebda tugha din Arrifubya zi rmxzen ? amec nezvra manaya war yedji iqqen ghir ghar usenti n tayduda tarrifect, amezruy yiriw u yudjegh itoeqqab zzay negh ghar temgharsut n ibeqquyen ghar lehrkat n rmxzen mgal i tqebbar tireffyin, ghar min tugha itegg rmxzen hma ad issares qabu di tjarrat n tenzbayt terrifect tamezwaret, s uya tabrat ni issek Yussef ghar ca n rquyyad d asighi i wmghaz a wanita, u war day s walu mara ssijen imeghrayen nnegh xf min inna ujedjid aoalwi di tesghart n warraw n tirrugza « nruh ghar ipri afasi huma ad nsfuggel s tfeska tameqrant …zg imentilen d anegh yejjin huma ad negg amuddu ya, min imsaren n Lfitna di cra n tqebbar tijeblyyin ideffaren i wemghwegh, id yussin di jjipet tarrifect huma ad isnekkar timessi m tagrawla d ‘Lfasad’ jar imezdagh n wergha … u di min yudvsen ad tsrem belli tarennawt ad tiri ak ughezdis nnegh…»(17)

rexzrat iqqutdven n yussef ad tejj it ad itwara ijjen wassadv (hero)am Mulay Muhned i zi ksin marra ayt bab n tnezbayt zeg umadval d ijjen «lfettan» yetghir as am ca n bu teghyuct nneghni, yussef war itbeddi ca ghar manaya wapa, u di 26 Mayy 1926 di Fransa inna zzat i wselway Afransis manaw ya: « nuss d ghar timura ya umi arnin iserdasen ifransisen, ghar idakkwar refder dg uqessi n tkecca n tagrawla zg awank nnegh…»itwfsar awar a di tghemmist n Ssaoada di 20 yulyuz 1920

dix yussef idja innugh di tumert nnes umi kkar ad sbedden tayduda tarrifect, netta war ttughi bu ixezzar ghar ughezdis nneghni n tirelli d uzarug ad tqebbidvt n uhwes, netta ghir tugha ixes ad iqqim d ajedjidv, waxxa x uorur n ruruf ni immuten d yenni innyzmen, xf uorur n tsekna n irifien ak min day sen yeghza rattvan yegga arpaj i xafsen ssuyesen, u mara aghemmis n Times Alunduni inna di tesghart n Mulay Muhned «Obkrim netta d asvadv d anamur yarni isbunya zg imucan ihwsen, u imnegh s drus n resnah zzat i ygeni ameqqran itezra tamezgha zg wakud n ikartvajien» (18)

u zeg ughezdis nneghni ntaff awuri anamur u awarn as amussu anamur ira oemmar as arahar war tenni xf tixutra n tmegga n Mulay Muhned u yina amec id ghad iban deg imar ad ten aff mgal i wuri aserdas u nitni ira djan ak awuri asertan u d manaya i ten ghad issbdvan ak Mulay muhned xminni ghad yegg aserdas userillett, maca xelli war kids djin ca deg tikti nnes, xelli amenni amc nnigh war d idaren walu zi tmegga d tabghest n Mulay Muhned, xelli di Amrika n yeffus ira twaran tt am Simun Bulibar (1783 _ 1830) anzbay Alatini itwassen d mamec di Eurubba teggent di txxamt n Gilium Till, anzbay Aswisri, tagrawla Tarrifit rebda idja mgal nnes marra ayt bab n taydyulijit n Imbiryalien ujar Ifusien iwrubbien, Maca xelli deg ifusien dja din inni ig itbeddan ak tayduda Tarrifect s unegmedv di Amrika, Maca yenneghni ira itbeddan Ak Mulay muhned nitni zg Icuyuoien, iggin ijen urar d ameqran «Lunabarak» mahned ad swizan Irifien, Izermaden ira axminni aqqayen ak Mly Muhned di Eurubba maca maci s amec ubeddi ni ira din zeg Izermadven di Amrika talatanet.

Taghemsa tamedlant kur ict min ttugha tari xf tagrwla n Mulay mhned d waydud Arrifi, kur ict man tt taydyulijit xf tbedd huma ad tzzugez (explique) turda (opinion) nnes am taghemsa tasbanyut idja itmzzaghen xf takulunyalit, maca xelli amenni nzemmar ad naff din sin n ddwab di taghemsa tasbanyult tenni itmezzaghen xf tasghart n Svbanya di Arrif s mamec mma am ughemmis n Kursibundansyadi Isbanya, d ughezdis nnegh ixezzaren ghar min itemsaren di Arrif zg ict teghmart nneghni zzat i trennawin ire itegg igeni Arifi u aghezdis wanita ira ntaff it ghar am aghemmis n Isbanya nuiba, maca arahar isbunya idja wer ssinen min itemsaren nican di Arrif ammu yura Antvuniu Bugis i wghmmis n A B C , ijjen umegrad adu uzewel «ra d ijjen war issin min itemsaren di Arrif «, Maca Taghemsa Talimant s wattvasv imntilen s unegmedv umi texsar deg umenghi amedlan wis yan, tugha tased ak tanzbayt tarrifect u deg yeyyar a yeqqar Aliksander Vun Tansbirg di tghemmist n Ziddyutcutsa ytung manaw ya: « neccin ilimanien ibedden xf umenghi deghya, ict tmsrayt ixess ad tiri zzat i tittawin nngh, aqqa inzbayen i wer ijjin ca n udvar ad iojen xf yiri nnsen, zdvapdjen abeddi nnegh akisen, amenghi nsen d amenghu nnegh» (19)

am ddeg a n ubeddi dja din zi taghemsa talimant ira war txes ca Fransa x uya rebda ira teqqar aqqa din ict twiza zeg uliman ghar tayduda tarrifect, min dja Taghemsa issawaren s ires n tanbdavt talimant tagi ad tkunfirma ddeg n wawar, tanya taghemsa Taytvalect rebda di rxzrat nnes taymbiryalit ira tsghuyyu xf tsekkirin itegg Fransa di Arrif war dji zzidjzen as irifien maca tugha twara sbanya ur tzemmar ad tqqim di Arrid, dix d Italya izdapdjen ad tiri di Arrif, u Italya nettat qao war tari taynit i tanzbayt tasbanyut minzi nettat war tizwi walu zi trennawet nnes zg umenghi amedlan amezwaru s uya nzemmad ad ngzu mayemmi teksi taghemsa taytvalect turda ya.

Imessdwar

  ميكيل مارتين، مرجع مذكور، ص 80: (1)

نفــســــه، ص، 69 و 70: (2)

أنظر نص التقرير بكامله، ميكيل مارتين، نفس المرجع، الصفحات من 70 إلى 73: (3)

نفس المعطيات ص 65 و 66، أنظر أيضا محمد عمر القاضي، مرجع مذكور، ص من 147 إلى 150: (4)

عز الدين الخطابي، محمد عبد الكريم الخطابي القائد الوطني، ص 53:(5)

محمد العلمي، مرجع مذكور، ص،51:(6)

ميكيل مارتين،مرجع مذكور، ص 84:(7)

محمد القجيري، مرجع مذكور، ع 113،شتنبر 2006:(8)

محمد القجيري، نفسه: (9)

عبد الرحمان اليوسفي، أنوال نموذج من معركة التحرير الشعبية، ج الإتحاد الإشتراكي بتاريخ 28 يوليوز 1981:(10)

عثمان بناني، «بمناسبة ذكرى إنتصار أنوال» ج الإتحاد الإشتراكي، بتاريخ 21 يوليوز 1991(11):

محمد القجيري، نفسه:(12)

محمد القجيري، نفسه(13):

كونز و مولر، حرب الغازات السامة في المغرب، ص 82:(14)

محمد القجيري، نفسه:(15)

محمد القجيري، نفسه:(16)

Tameghrabect uttun 12, taf 40, 41 Xzar tt n Yussef di Tesghunt n Amal:(17)

1926Taghemmist n Times, Uttvun m 27 mayy:(18)

مجلة شراع ع 19 أبريل 1997:(19)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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