Uttvun 71, 

Krayûr 2003

(Mars 2003)

Amezwaru

 (Page d'accueil) 

Tamazight

Zeg "wmenghi n usekkil" ghar unna n tifinagh

Imazighen jar weoraq d useoraq

Mayemmi ur temmuted ula d cek di Fransa a Oebbas

Taserdunt n isemdval

Imazighen n imal

Tudert i tmazight

Français

La gaffe de Mr Chirac

L'anniversaire d'Abdelkrim

Un exemple d'amazighophobie

L'adoption de tifinagh, un choix de sagesse

Quand certains islamistes dénaturent la religion

Sur l'organisation sociale et politique d'imazighen

العربية

من "معركة الحرف" إلى معركة "تيفيناغ"

المغرب والمعنى ـ مدارات حزينة

عندما يرتهن قدر المغرب بمصير "الأمة العربية"

الأسئلة الظاهرة والحسابات الخفية في اختيار حرف الأمازيغية

الأمازيغية وثنائية المقدس والمدنس

عن "النزوع الأمازيغي" وهفواته

الأمازيغية: صور من المنع والعداء

الأسلامويون والأمازيغية

هي لغتنا ونحن أولى باختيار حرفها

 

 

 

 

Tazrawt (Etude):

 Imazighen jar weoraq d useoraq (Tafurt wis 1)

 Yura t': Lyamani Qassuh (Ayt Oebdellah, lhusima)

 

«Ticri, ad tinid tugha t xaf sen tura. Ticri warten t id zi rejdud imezwura… Ticri jjin t id inni imezwura. Ticri zzay s sbedden amezruy nsen. Amezruy n ticri…“Neccin d tarwa n ticri… Aghimi ghar negh d aweddvar»(1)

1- Aoraq (anig) d raggûj...

S wawaren a n tawmat Muhemmed Buzeggu i d yusin deg ungal nnes “Ticri x tama n tasarrawt”, ad nadef ad nessiwel x usentel (thème) n ticri nigh aoraq/atlao, i ismaren attvas n ighzdisa zi tudart n wayduden.

S manaya, ntaf belli asentel a tetwawc as bezzef (attvas, cigan) n taynit  s wattvas n imesnawiyen d imrazzuten g iyyar n tneflit d tussna d timetti d tademsa d tarakalt d umezruy…

Maca adas  n umezruy i weoraq itghima d ijj n wadas d aqudvadv amec iqqar Oebdellap Lbarudi(2). S manaya, ttass d tarzuyt a i ghad negg, huma ad narzu x izvewran n uoraq deg wmezruy. Huma ad nessen wac d tidett nigh d ixarriqen belli neccin d ijj n weydud itexs aoraq, ad nini d amneoruq?

Ad narzu, ad nessen min d anegh ijjin n oarreq, d min d anegh ijjan  oad ruxa  neccin noarreq/ntetlao?

Zdat ma ad nadess, nigh ad narr x iseqsan a, ixessv ad nessen immi qqaren: aoraq?

-Min ixes ad yini: aoraq/atlao?

-Man imezli (rfarz) jar: uoraq d useoraq?

-Imazighen n Arrif: oarqen nnit nigh soarqen ten? U mizi? U mayemmi?

Huma ad yili adas i ghad negg i wsentel a yecna u yudjegh, u yudess i tidett, awal inu as yili x Arrif. Arrif netta d iyyar/araq i d yusin di zermedv n Lmerruk. Ad nbedd ghar ca n isemdvan i yemsarn deg umezruy di zic d yidv a.

2- Asbadu n uoraq (anig).

Aoraq/Atlao ixs ad yini: “Amutti zeg wraq ghar uraq, zeg wraq n tzeddight ghar wennedvni itili yeggêj x tzeddight”(3).

Amutti ya itawi d ufugh d ticri d utewweh d utlao d uggaji. U netta itemsebdva aked (“olahsab”): Akud d iggmiren n tarakalt.

Mara neksi d aoraq aked (olahsab) tarakalt, ntaf aoraq imsebdva x sin(2): Aoraq agensi (dixer) d uoraq n barra. Aoraq ameggaru netta mi x ad nessiwer deg wsentel a. Maca min ixes ad yini uoraq di taneflit n imazighen?

Aoraq itwassen di marra ayduden n umadval  zeg ûmi tessenta tudart n ufeggan/atarras. U netta d tasgahrt zi tseqqar nnes ad mux i d yusa deg “abareh amedvlan n tiseqqar n ufeggan”(4).

Maca itghima kuy agdud mux ghar s ixezzvar nigh mux t izvar. Axezvar a/ azri ya wa itass d netta d anelkam n tawada deg wbrid n tudart n aweydud. Mara neksi d aydud n Arrif i yejjan d aydud d amazigh, ntaf waxxa rux marra tarezzu nigh txarrves ad toarq(5).

Maca itghima weoraq, ira ghur s ict n tasmaqqatc ur tehri ghar imezdagh deg Arrif. Amya ntaf di zic blli atarras ira ioarrqen ur ghar s bu wraq jar tawacunt, jar imezdagh n dcar, jar tarwa n tmurt. Itghima netta xezzvaren ghur s ijj n uxezzvar d aqudvadv u ujar manaya, ntaf blli aoraq ira temzawaren u tmenghan zzay s: “Arah a yamenneoruq, mri day k ttayla (arbah) iri ur toarqed”. Amya, mara inna ca n yijj i wennidven: a yamenneoruq, a yametluo, itaca axmi ighars as acku ighedvr as u yessepwa ays zi tcuni d uraq i ghar s jar ayt rwacun d weydud. U manaya i tawi d amenghi d uxeyyeq d ameqran jar asen. U izemmar ad yawi ghar ufsax n waqqan ira ismuna ten. U manya ntaf ghur s izvewran xlli d min iteqqnen ghar tudart n weydud gi zic. Ira ntaf aoraq itemqudda ag tamarrut n wenghi (peine de mort) nigh ag tamarrut n takurmut (prison) ar aneggar n tudart nnes (prison à vie).

Amya, imgharen imrayyan ira zzurfan (prononcer un verdict) x wen i ghad yunghen wennidven s ioraq, sseoraqen t, ssufughen t zi teqbitc, zi rwacun, zi tmurt nnes. U yetghima ghur s bu waqqan jar asen(6).

U qqaren toawden iwdan n zic belli ca n imezdagh zi tmurt n Arrif ira waxxa deg ûssan mani ntaf anzvar itudrus ur tifen utci (nourriture), netnin tghiman di tudrin nsen, tagin ad oarqen waxxa yiwi aghimi ya ghar tmettant.

U manaya ismara belli aydud amazigh di Arrif ira ixezzvar ghar weoraq s ca n uxezvar d aqudvadv. Axezzvar a wa ntad it' ghar ca n wayduden nnidven deg wmadval. Amacnaw aydud n Urug May di Mirika talatinit(7).

S manaya, itass d useqsi: Mayemmi u manis d yekka uxezzvar a wa? U magahr nedwer qqao narezzu ad noarq? Amux yusi d deg ûwal n Muhemmed Buzeggu “Neccin d tarwa n ticri”, nigh amux inna Oellal Zerwali “Aoraq idwer d taghariwt(8)”. Nigh amux iqqar azrawi ameqqran Hmed Ziyyani: “Magahr neccin war negh yeysi wexxam?”(9).

Twarrit x iseqsan a, tessadaf anegh huma ad narzu deg wmezruy n uoraq ghar imazighen.

Maca, zdat ad nessneta, ixessv ad nessen imezli jar uoraq d useoraq.

3-  Asbadu n useoraq:

D tidett, mara nenna belli “aoraq” d asemqar nigh d azwel itawi d deg tutlayt n taorabt “Lpijra” u temqudda ag “Immigration” di tutlayt n tefransist u yezwar nessiwel x usbadu n uoraq.

Aseoraq netta, zeg imyagen (verbes) ismaran blli din amyag s bezzaf(10).

Aseoraq: Ixessv ad yini blli din amuti d ticri d ufugh d uggaji s bezzez  u s drao. Aseoraq itemsar asel (bra) txusi n ufeggan. Itass d d anelkam n wadaf n ca n uhewwas x imezdagh n ca n tmurt. Nigh d anelkam n uzeyyar n ca n tsertit d tadiyulujit ur txeddem aydud d imezdagh. U nzemmar ad nebdva aseoraq x sin: aseoraq s tirebbah, d useoraq ijj ijj n tawerikit.

S manaya, ad nadef ghar umezruy huma ad nessen: Imazighen mani yellan jar uoraq d useoraq.

4 - Aseoraq n imazighen deg wmezruy igelsen

Nenna, deg wmezwaru blli aoraq yetwassen ghar marra ayduden d timettiwin zeg ûmi tella tudart. Amya, ntaf belli aydud amazigh issen ra d netta “aoraq”. Maca aydud a, zeg wmezwaru arezzun as u xsen as ad yili d amenneoruq d ametluo.

Amya, nnan blli imazighen ur llin bu d tarwa n tmurt n zermedv n Wafriqya. Nnan usin d, oarqen d, ggûjen d… zi “Lyaman”… zi “Filistvin” (Ccam)… zi “Urubba”(10).

Timenna ya xsent ad inint, zi min xsent ad inint, belli imazighen d imenneoraq, ur ghur sen bu wezvwar di tmurt a. S manaya, iqqar Muhammed Buzeggu: «Ticri ad tinid tugha t xaf sen tura, ticri warten tet id zi rejdud imezwura, ticri jjin tet id inni imezwura. Ticri zzay s isbedden amezruy nsen»(11).

Amya, ntaf marra ihuwwasen i d yusin ghar tmurt n imazighen, ggin min ghur sen d tizemmar mahend ad ssufghen, ad soarqen ayt bab n tmurt huma ad hewwsen tamurt a, ad ceffaren agra nnes, ad azzren xef imezdagh nnes…

Amya, mara nedwer ghar umezruy  agles (antique) nigh amaynu (zic attvas), wami ira tamurt n imazighen day s ahuwwas arumi (colonisateur romain), ntaf blli imazighen twasoarqen ghar barra. Dani arzugh u beddegh xef ca n isemdan (événements) i yemsaren deg wmezruy idva nyucen ict n tasmaqqatc x useoraq i tegga “Ruma/irumiyen” i ymezdagh n zermedv n Lmurruk ira itwassen deg wmezruy nni s “Muritanya n Tvanja” jar useggûs n 31 d 25 zdat talilit n Lmasih(12).

Amya, ntaf iqqar ijj anmezray (historien) d arumi qqaren as “Strabun” ig yuran x tarakalt n Wafriqya bbli Ruma d asoarq n imezdagh n temdint n “Zilis”(13) ghar yeffus n “Ibirya” mani thewwes ca n tmurt tegga day s ict n thewwast (colonie) s adu wezwel “Lulya Luza” u tarni ghur sen ca n imezdagh n temdint n Tvanja (Tinjis). Awarni manaya tarni d tiwi d ca n imezdagh nnes z Italya.

Dani ntaf yan  n anmezray i mmi qqaren “Billin Awessar” yidar (évoquer, mentionner) ghar wemyag n ca n temhewsin di Muritanya yegga tent Ugustin, zzay sent: Zilis, Binaza(13).

Min itwaggen amya, yejja attvas n wawal jar yenni irazzun deg wmezruy x useoraq s tirebbah n imezdugh n temdint n “Tinjis” d “Zilis”. Itghima useqsi isrusan ixf nnes da netta: Min ijjin imrayyan n “Ruma” deggen ghar useoraq s tirebbah?

Inni yarin x useqsi ya, nnan attvas n timenna. Nnan: atigh “Ruma” tarezzu ad tarzvem iggar nigh tamurt n imazighen huma ad adfen irumiyen ad zedghen. U din yenni yennan blli aseoraq n imezdagh n “Zilis” d “Tvanja” yusi d huma ad  kkaren imezdagh n “Tvanja” umi ira tetwahewwes tesghart n tanamurt (citoyenneté) zeg Ruma mahend ad arren imezdagh n “Zilis” d irumiyen. S manaya yusi d usmuni nsen.

Maca, timenna ya tghimant oad day sent min ghad yetwannan. Magahr?

-Yac “Ruma” ira ghur s tizemmar ad tarr iwdan d imezdagh d irumiyen bra ad ten tesoarq ghar barra.

Dani, neqqar maghar ur ittiri useoraq a yusi d awarni wami yufa ahewwas arumi imezdagh n tighermin (tineddam) i d yusin di zermedv n Lmurruk kkaren ccaten day s, snekkaren day s taharyat n tagrawla. Ugin ad msuxuren akid s.

S manaya, huma ad ad taf ufugh i manya, tekkar “Ruma” tesoarq iten. Dani ntaf ixef nnegh arendad n useqsi s bezzez, maci s tuxsa.

Ad narni blli Ruma tegga aseoraq n usemdan (individu) imazighen amacnaw min yemsaren i ygrawlen d imgharen imazighen. Ad nucc amedya (exemple) s tawacunt n Yuba amzwaru…

Ghar uneggaru, ad nekyu (conclure) blli tarezzut deg iggar a ggimal ad tesmar s tidett aseoraq ira illi d tasertit tedvfar it Ruma huma ad tewwet zzay s imazighen mani mma di tmurt ira tarezzu ad thewwes ad tesdurrey (coloniser).

5-Aseoraq n imazighen deg wmezruy n ulemmas awtay (moyen âge)

«Zeg wsenti n imussuten n wadaf amesrem, imsar ijj n uzewggi yemghar zi zermedv ghar Wafriqya ghar “Urubba”. S tarewra n irumiyen d ifriqiyen ghar “Sebbanya” d tighzirin n uyel acemrar, zi waoraben i d yudfen s uzwil n tmesremt».(14).

Tamurt n imazighen - zemedv n Wafriqya - u zzay s Arrif - deg wmezruy a ad assen ghur s aoraben. Twasit a arsin as d timarsa n “Lislam”. Maca aqemmum nsen ira itazzer ghar wagra n tmurt a.

U manaya ijja ten tettun tabrat n ujjed (religion) Lislam. Arrin taynit i woeddis. S manayenni ggin attvas n imxubar d ignuten (problèmes) d izgalen (fautes).

Amya ntaf inmezrayen ssawalen, qqaren bbelli aoraben ira ssufughen, ssaggûjen u sseoraqen imezdagh zi tmurt nsen. Iqqar Sidqi Oali Azayku(15): «Adaf n usugi n “Roeskar” amesrem di zermedv n Wafriqya yiwi ghar wemxerwedv d umutti d ugaji n imezdagh s tirebbah». Issiwel Mmis n Oadari deg wdellis nnes “Albayan Almughrib”, inna(16): «Awarni usugi n waoraben ghar zermedv n Wafriqya, attvas n imezdagh d imazighen d irumiyen ig oarqen arewren ghar Urubba d tigzirin n uyel acemrar».

Tidett a ira yezgur inna t u yessiwel xaf s “Lbekri” deg wdellis nnes: “Ifriqiyuata d Lmughrib”. Wani yessiwel x useoreq i ggin aoraben i timagharin timazighin radj n wudmawen yecnan. Hewsen tent u yiwin tent zzenzen tent deg igadazen (les marchés) nsen. U yenna Lbekri belli ict n tarbat ira ttegg 1000 Dinar n tmenyat(17). U manaya inna t' ura d “Libi Brubinsal d “Husayen Muanis” d “Loerwi” d “M.Heqqi”(19)…

Ina marra nnan belli aoraq d usoarq ad immarni awarni wadaf d uhewwes ig itwaggen i yeffus n Sebbanya.

Amya, wami aoraben ggwden x ixf nsen ad mten deg wmenghi aked irumiyen di Sebbanya nigh deg ayel acemrar - maghar ira teggwden ayell - ccûren u ssihman azellif n imazighen s tadiyulujit n Ljipad, oayaren asen x wulawen. Smaren asen aberqec (gain) d tarrazt n Ljipad. Sniffren asen tinelkmin (les conséquences). Awarni manaya yusi d usufegh d useoreq zi tmurt nsen ghar barra. Amya, sezguren ten ghar umenghi aked irumiyen. Nitnin (aoraben) nneggran xezzvaren min ghad yemsaren d amezwaru.

Z dat ad izvwa Tariq, izvwa Tvarif (amyag n tenbadvt taburughwatit di 91 zi Lpijra, 710 zi tallit n Lmasih, g ict n tarbiht day s 400 n imazighen(20). Ddun ssijjen mux tella tanawiyt n tmurt taybirit mahend ad aggren ghar usugi ameqqran i ghad yegg Tariq mmis n Zeyyad deg wseggûs n 92 zi Lpijra i ytemsasan aked 711 zi tallit n Lmasih, s ca n 12000 n imezdagh imazighen n zermedv n Lmurruk amux qqaren attvas n imarezzuten (chercheurs) deg wmezruy(21).

Ur yeodi yan n useggûs x tarnayt (victoire) i yegga Tvariq di Landalus, awami nufa Musa mmis n Nusvayr deg wseggûs n 93 zi Lpijra, 712 zi tallit n Lmasih, ismun tarbiht i yiwdven zzay sen imgharen imazighen, izvwa ghar Alandalus huma ad ihart x Tvariq n Zeyyad.

U yenna Oebdellap Oinan belli uttvun n tarbiht a illa day s 8000 idsen(22).

Azvway (traversée) i yegga Musa n Nusvayr yiwi d amcubbec d umelsay (conflit) d ameqran jar imazighen d waoraben, awarni ufin bezzaf n aytmatsen twanghen u zzay sen Tvariq n Zeyyad. Ur nessin may t' ggin waoraben(23).U zeg imazighen i d idewren ghar tmurt nnes ntaf Tarif Aburghwatvi i ghad yemdvarnen x waoraben, ad isnekkar day sen tagrawla aseggûs n 123 zi Lpijra, 740 zi tallit n Lmasih. U ad igg tanebadvt taburghwatit di Tamesna deg 124/742(24).

Aseoraq a ig yemsaren i ymazighen ad iqqim yeddar itmanay anect kkin aoraben trayyan u nebbdven (gouverner) di Landalus d zermedv n Wafriqya. Manaya ijja imarezzuten deg wmezruy n weoraq, amacnaw Muhemmed Heqqi(25), bettvan aoraq n imazighen ghar Landalus ghar kradv n tigella (étapes) d timeqranin.. Yat n teglellit tennebdva xef wattvas  n tesfifin (vagues). Teglellit tamezwarut jar 92/744 n tlalit. Taglellit wis sin jar: 136/754 d 202/817. Taglellit wis kradv jar 300/912 d 422/1031.

Deg wmenghi d umlasay (conflit) ig yemsaren jar icioiyen ifatvimiyen d Imawiyen isunniyen di zermedv n Wafriqya, attvas n imazighen oarqen di zermedv, attvas n imazighen oarqen zeg wnelkem n umenghi, amacnaw min yemsaren i ayt Nkur i yarewren oarqen ghar “Ibirya” wami d sugen Ifatimiyen x teghremt (tamdint) n Nkur deg wseggûs n 304/916(26).

Ufugh a d useoraq a ig yemsaren i ymazighen s tirebbah ghar barra, yusi d d anelkam n “tsertit tadiyulujit taourubit” i yemmarsen x tahraymect d ixarriqen d tuccefra d tukkardva d usiwef (terrorisme).

Tadiyulujit a ad zzay s ksin inbadven imurabitviyen d imuwahhiden deg wghezdis yeqqnen ghar “Ljipad” d uslakem (conquête) n Landalus. U manaya iwwi ghar useoraq n wattvas n imazighen.

Aseoraq a issexwa tammurt n zermedv n Wafriqya zeg imezdagh nnes. U yejja tammurt tarzvem huma ad adfen aoraben tarwa n Pilal d tarwa n Salim di tallit (époque) n imuwwahidin, amec iqqar amsermed amarezzu Muhammed Heqqi(27).

6-Aseoraq n imazighen di tallit tanemtutit (époque contemporaine)

“Tasertit taydeyulujit taorubit” mix nessiwel ar itkasa (hériter) - u zzay s i ghad yaggen  Rmexzen ghar Marruk zi akud (temps) n timidv (siècle) wis 19 ar idv a. U zzay s ar itenbadv (gouverner) imezdagh imazighen.

Rmexzen a, imrayyan ines netnin d andalusiyen i d yarewren awarni tudvewra d tarayt i Sebbanya n tmurt nsen. Imarrayen a andalusiyen oemmars ur ucin s wemnus n tmurt d imezdagh imazighen ula s tussna d tneflit nsen. Ira reppan ag ixf nsen d tarwa nsen. Marra tizemmar i ggin g wghezdis n rmexzen, ggin tent mahend ad assen d inebbadven huma ad ggen min xsen.

Amya, wami d suggen tinebdvatin timbiryaliyin (impérialistes) x Lmerruk deg wzgen wis sin n 19s, nufa indalusiyen imughrabiyen awarni “Tiqunsuliyin” tirubbatin tnuffuren zi titfarnin (devoirs) u xsen arendad n udvmis awanik. U s manaya, umun (contriber) di tirzi n udvmis d warzvam n tewwart i yrubbiyen ad sdurreyen/ad hewwsen (coloniser) tamurt n Lmaruk(28). U yemsar umyawaz (collaboration) d ameqran jar asen x imezdagh imazighen d tmurt nsen. U itwagg ijj n uzeyyar x Arrif d iwdan i yzedghen day s. Azeyyar a itemzvar di taggatin (combats) d uhewwes d uzenzi ig imsarn i tgharmin (tineddam) d tigzirin n Arrif, d tukatdva d uqabu itwawcaren i ymezdagh nnes ummi isebbunya arzvin tidsiwin timettiwin d tidemsiwin (destruction des structures socio-économiques)(29).

(Voir carte, page 16 du manuscrit)

Arrif jar uzeyyar n rmexzven d tambiryalit:

Arendad i wsurs a (asurs, addad = situation), oarqen attvas n irifiyen ghar Dzayar awarni whemmes d usdurrey i tegga Fransa i tmurt a deg wseggus n 1830.

Timnadvin  Arrif  Wejda    Taza  Tafilalt   Warzazat    Daroa

Uttvun Jar 30000     35000     20000  20000     6500   3000

 N imenneoraq   D 410000

Afelwa 1: Uttvun n imenneoraq ghar Dzayar (Zdat asdurrey ar aseggûs n 1956)

Itemzvar zi tafelwit (tableau) blli taoraqt tedwusa zi timnadvin n zermedv d yeffus. Acku tasursit tamettiwit tademsiwit n temnadvin a ira tarrezv u tumum (faiblir) s uzeyyar I ytwaggen xaf sent. U manaya yiwi ghar tudrust n umuzli (travail) deg ûkud ira day s anzvar yudrus d wattvas n razv i yreqfen Arrif deg wseggûs n: 1909  1910  1913  1921  1928  1937  1945…

Deg iyyar a, ntaf amarezzu Oellal Zerwal yeqqar blli Aoraq yarra ayt Arrif d ighriben(32). U manaya d tidett, acku deg ûkud a irifiyen ira teddaren deg wdemsiw n tukkardva d tuccefra. Ixessv ur ntettu blli rmexzen isseoraq titawin gi tinnedvni attvas n imezdagh n Arrif  amc yemsar i ybeqquyen wami i d isug xaf sen Bucta Lbeghdadi deg wseggûs n 1898(33).

7- Aseoraq n irifiyen di tallit n umesdurrey asebbanyu (1926  1956)

Awarni usali n tezbut (résistance) tarifit(24), yudef d umesdurrey asebbanyu ghar tmurt n Arrif. Ag wadaf a, immarni uzeyyar d razv d fad d tudrust n umuzeli (travail)… d unzvar. S manaya ntaf imezdagh arezzun ufugh d weoraq ghar Dzayar.

Maca azeyyar n umesdurrey asebbanyu d ufransis issefses deg wseggûs n 1928 - 1929 - 1930 zeg woraq a acku Fransa teggêd zeg wmutti n imxumbar d tezbut ghar tmurt i thewwes di Dzayar. Xlli d Sebbanya teggêd ad yemsar ca n umyawaz jar imezbuten irifiyen d idzayriyen(35).

Maca, deghya dewrent tinbadvin (Fransa d Sebbanya) g wseggûs: 1931 - 1933  ad wadment i ymezdagh huma ad oarqen. Sebbanya ad taf ufugh g woraq d usoarq n irifiyen i tezburt d westan (défense) d takrawla n uzvubezv (possible) ad zzay s kkarn(36) arendad n usurs a i teddaren d usyettem n tarayt i tmurt nsen.

 Amya ad idwel useoraq d ijj n ughezdis zi tsertit i ghad tedvfar Sebbanya arendad n imezdagh n tmurt i tesdurrey di Arrif(37) d ayt Baoemran d Kanarya…

Huma ad tili ghur negh ict n tesmaqqatc x uttvunene n imenneoraq ghar Dzayar, ad nexzvar tifelwa ya:

Afelwa 2: Uttvun n imuzulen n imenneoraq iwetman zi ca n tqebbal tirifiyin deg wseggûs n 1941(38)

Taqbilt   Imenneoraq    Imezdagh iwetman     %

Temsaman       1567                 7504                      20.9

Ayt Soid           1544                  5617                     27.5

Ayt Tuzin         1193                  8246                     14.5

Tafarsit               301                1636                       18.4

Aghrud             4605                23003                      20

Afelwa 3: Uttvun n imenneoraq ghar Dzayar zeg isunan (zones) n Arrif deg wseggûs n 1954(39)

Timnadvin n weoraq   Uttvunen n imennoarqen

Tighremt nLhusima                          132

Ayt Waryigher                                    2228

Ayt Kamil                                              230

Ayt Oemmart                                        548

Taghzut                                                   125

Zreqt                                                        81

Ayt Bufrah                                             77

Mestasa                                                  71

Ktama                                                     64

Ibeqquyen                                            52

Ayt Seddat                                           22

Ayt Bucibt                                            17

Ayt Hmed                                            14

Targist                                                 15

Ayt Tettvef                                          10

Ayt Mezduy                                        04

Ayt Bunsvar                                       03

Ayt Xennus                                          01   

Itemzvar belli aoraq ghar Dzayar isawa marra tiqebbar n Arrif. U yeqqim yeddar ar useggûs n 1956. Jar 1936  1939, Franku asebbanyu issufegh u yesoarq attvas n irifiyen i yeggin deg wmezwura n “roeskar” mi zi immnegh aked “Arruxu”.

Deg wseoraq a yemsaren i yhudriyen d yargazen irifiyen, ntaf belli imrayyan ighellaten (chefs) n ikabaren isertiyen (partis politiques) n tallit nni amacnaw Mekki Nnasviri d Oebdelxaliq Ttvuris. Ina tughayen aked umussu n Franku tawzen t. Amya barrhen deg igadazen (souks) d timzidawin d tiqebbar i ymezdagh  huma ad bedden aked Franku.

Ighellaten a gin tizemmar huma ad soarqen x wulawen imezdagh wami smaren d tamriht ghar Sebbanya d umenghi aked “Arruxu” amecnaw tumut (participation) di “Ljipad”.  Acku arruxu d “lkuffar” u d “icuyuoeyyen” ghar ighellaten a(40). Tadrawt (participation, contribution) n imughrabiyen deg wmenghi a ira tella ammu:

Zi 18/7/1936 ar 31/3/1939, aghrud (total) n idrawiyen (participants) yiwwedv uttvunen nsen: 268162. 165000 idsen mmuten zzay sen 30000 zeg Arrif alemmas n ufella, 1700 weddvaren, 5300 mmuten s uneodar…(41).

Amya, ntaf belli amesdurrey asebbanyu ur yeggi walu zi min ihran u yecnan di Arrif. Igga tukkardva d thewwast… imezdagh d wagra nsen…

S manaya, imezdagh ggin fus g fus zbanen u setnen x tmurt nsen s min ghur sen d tizemmar. Ira qqaren as: ad nessufegh amesdurrey ahewwas huma tudart nnegh ad tecna ad tesvbeh, ad nidar ussan yizvidven di tmurt nnegh. Maca ur yeffigh umesdurrey awarni wami imtawa u yesmidag (être en coordination) ag inermaden ines g “Ikes Liban”. (Isul ad itwadvfar)

      

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